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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 15 April-21 April 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 15 April-21 April 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Fernandina Ecuador New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
NW Rota-1 Mariana Islands (USA) New
Pagan Mariana Islands (USA) New
Paluweh Indonesia New

Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Koryaksky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Nevado del Huila Colombia Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Redoubt United States Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

KVERT reported that during 10-17 April observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15 km SE. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 April an ash plume drifted NE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fernandina  | Ecuador  | 0.37°S, 91.55°W  | Elevation 1476 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from IG, the Washington VVAC reported that during 15-16 April gas-and-steam plumes from Fernandina drifted up to 555 km W and a thermal anomaly was detected on the W half of the island. According to news articles, the eruption caused the deaths of numerous fish and multiple sea lions that were found floating in the sea.

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels on 11 April and at background levels the other days during 12-17 April. Satellite imagery revealed gas-and-ash plumes that drifted 90 km NE on 9 and 10 April, and a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 14 April. Fumarolic activity was seen on 15 and 16 April. The Level of Concern Color remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  NW Rota-1  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 14.601°N, 144.775°E  | Elevation -517 m

According to a news article from 20 April, scientists investigating NW Rota-1 during the previous two weeks observed the volcano erupting about 520 m below the ocean's surface. Measurements indicated that the volcano had grown about 40 m since 2006. One scientist observed billowing yellow and white sulfur clouds, carbon dioxide bubbles streaming out of the vent, and "ash and pebble-sized rocks raining out of the plume."

Source: GuamPDN - Pacific Daily News



Volcano index photo  Pagan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 18.13°N, 145.8°E  | Elevation 570 m

Based on reports from the Washington VAAC, the USGS stated that on 15 April intermittent plumes of steam from Pagan rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km W. Observers on a ship reported that a white plume "with some black" rose 1.8 km (5,700 ft) from the volcano. On 16 April a diffuse plume drifted 85 km W. USGS raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. The next day fishermen again reported a plume.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

During 1-17 April, seismic activity from Paluweh increased, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 18 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 12-16 April, seismicity from Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to increase. M 4-4.5 hybrid earthquakes occurred every 2-3 hours. Web camera views showed increased incandescence from the lava domes and gas-and-ash plumes that were wider at their base than previously seen. The plumes rose 1.5 km (4,900 ft) above the domes. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analysis of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16 and 18-19 April, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and N.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was not analyzed during 9-17 April due to technical reasons. Cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 15-21 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows were present on the coastal plain and at the base of the pali. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas or rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Pele's hair, tiny glass spheres, and ash were frequently retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated, reaching 700 tonnes per day on 15 April; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Koryaksky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.321°N, 158.712°E  | Elevation 3430 m

During 10-17 April, KVERT reported that seismic activity at Koryaksky was above background levels. Gas-and-ash plumes were seen on satellite imagery and drifted 30-680 km in multiple directions. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18 and 21 April ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, W, and NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

During 15-21 April, INGEOMINAS reported that gas plumes from Nevado del Huila's lava dome, viewed through the web camera, rose to a maximum altitude of 6.9 km (22,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 19 April, intense degassing observed during an overflight produced whitish and bluish plumes. Thermal anomalies were detected on the N and S parts of the dome. The Alert Level was at Yellow.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 10-17 April white and gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1-2 km above the crater. Plumes drifted SE and NW. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and roaring noises were reported. Ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Redoubt  | United States  | 60.485°N, 152.742°W  | Elevation 3108 m

AVO reported that during 15-21 April seismicity from Redoubt remained above background levels, indicating ongoing growth of the lava dome in the summit crater. The web camera showed that vigorous steam-and-gas plumes that may have occasionally contained small amounts of ash rose from the vent to altitudes below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at the summit and drifting sulfur dioxide plumes. Based on photos and thermal images obtained on 16 April, the lava dome was estimated to be about 500 x 700 m across and at least 50 m thick. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 10-17 April. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to altitudes of 4.5-7.5 km (14,800-24,600 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome and ash plumes that drifted about 50 km NW on 13 April. According to observers, fumaroles were active on 15 and 16 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions on 19 and 22 April produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.2 km (15,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 21 April. Details of possible resultant ash plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 15-21 April, IG reported that clouds mostly prevented observations of Tungurahua; a steam-and-gas plume rose 100 m above the crater on 15 April and an ash plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted NW on 18 April. Ashfall was reported in areas to the SW and N during 15-16 and 18-19 April. Roaring noises were occasionally heard.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



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Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
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Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
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Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)