Activity for the week of 7 April-13 April 2010
Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 April-13 April 2010.
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 April-13 April 2010.
Activity for the week of 7 April-13 April 2010
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Egon||Flores Island (Indonesia)||New|
|Gaua||Banks Islands (Vanuatu)||New|
|Batu Tara||Komba Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Rabaul||New Britain (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Egon | Flores Island (Indonesia) | 8.676°S, 122.455°E | Elevation 1661 m
CVGHM reported that on 7 April the Alert Level for Egon was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) due to a marked increase in seismic activity since 28 March. Small steam plumes normally rose 10 m above the crater.
Etna | Sicily (Italy) | 37.748°N, 14.999°E | Elevation 3295 m
INGV-CT reported that on 8 April a dozen low-frequency events located near the summit of Etna were detected by the seismic network. Concurrently, a dark-colored ash plume rose 1 km from a pit crater located at the E base of the Southeast Crater and drifted NE. Dark emissions from the central crater were also seen a short time later. Ashfall was reported from a few local areas. On 9 April intense gas emissions were noted at the pit crater.
Eyjafjallajokull | Iceland | 63.633°N, 19.633°W | Elevation 1651 m
The Institute of Earth Sciences reported that on 7 April the eruption from Eyjafjöll ceased from the original eruption craters and was limited to the fissure that had opened on 31 March. Lava flows covered an estimated area of 1.3 square kilometers and were on average 10-20 m thick. The largest scoria cone was 82 m high. After minor changes in deformation rates during the eruption, on 9 April deformation returned to pre-eruption levels. Eruptive activity was observed on 11 April, but tremor decreased to baseline the next day. Also on 12 April, according to a new article, the Icelandic Civil Protection Department decided to lower the preparedness level by one point, from emergency to danger because of the decreasing activity. Another article stated that a pilot saw no active lava flows, only steam plumes, during an overflight on 13 April.
At 2300 on 13 April, a seismic swarm was detected below the central part of Eyjafjöll, W of the previous eruption fissures. About an hour later, the onset of seismic tremor heralded an eruption from a new vent on the S rim of the central caldera, capped by Eyjafjallajökull glacier. The eruption was visually confirmed early in the morning on 14 April; an eruption plume rose at least 8 km above the glacier. Meltwater flowed to the N and S. News outlets reported that a circular ice-free area about 200 m in diameter was seen near the summit. Scientists conducting an overflight saw a new 2-km-long, N-S-trending fissure, and ashfall to the E. About 700 people were ordered to evacuate the area, and certain flights were banned from flying N and E of the eruption area. Flooding increased throughout the day, causing road closures and some structural damage.
Gaua | Banks Islands (Vanuatu) | 14.27°S, 167.5°E | Elevation 797 m
On 7 April, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that recent field observations of Gaua confirmed significant changes in activity. Gas plumes were detected daily by satellite images. During the end of March through the beginning of April, ash plumes rose daily to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Explosions were heard in nearby villages. Starting on 3 April villagers living in the N and S parts of the island reported ashfall and saw bombs ejected from Gaua. Based on Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory information, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 8-12 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes were seen on satellite imagery on 11 and 12 April drifting S and SE. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4).
Miyakejima | Japan | 34.094°N, 139.526°E | Elevation 775 m
Redoubt | United States | 60.485°N, 152.742°W | Elevation 3108 m
AVO reported that the rate of small earthquakes in the vicinity of Redoubt's summit approached background levels during 7-11 April. Gas measurements on 8 April were consistent with a passively degassing and cooling lava dome. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 12 April.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
The IG reported that during 7-13 April observations of Reventador were not possible because of weather. The Washington VAAC reported that on 8 April an ash plume seen by pilots rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations of the area. The VAAC also noted that seismicity was elevated.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-13 April explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes identified in satellite imagery. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NW, E, and SE.
Arenal | Costa Rica | 10.463°N, 84.703°W | Elevation 1670 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that during March activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches. A lava flow that began in mid-January remained active on the S flank. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE, E, and SE flanks. Avalanches from the crater and from lava-flow fronts traveled down the SW, S, and SE flanks, occasionally igniting vegetation. Crater D produced only fumarolic activity.
Batu Tara | Komba Island (Indonesia) | 7.791°S, 123.585°E | Elevation 633 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-11 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-75 km NW, NE, E, and SE.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 April an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting over 220 km NE at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. During 10-12 April ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-75 km NE.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was above background on 2 and 3 April and at background levels during 4-9 April. Satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly from the volcano during 3-4 and 6 April. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 7-13 April, HVO reported incandescence from a 60-m-wide active lava surface about 200 m below a 130-m-wide vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through a pit in the cavity floor; a few times the level fluctuated between 235 and 260 m below the surface. Rocks from the vent walls fell into the pond, causing spattering. Plumes from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash, and occasionally Pele's hair and Pele's tears, downwind. Measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 600 and 500 tonnes per day were measured on 8 and 9 April, respectively.
Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through the upper portion of a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Lava flows moved SE down Pulama pali.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that during 2-9 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 30-180 km NNE. On 7 April, gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. The next day, a diffuse ash plume drifted 55-60 km NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that most days during 7-13 April emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl contained minor amounts of ash.
Rabaul | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) | 4.271°S, 152.203°E | Elevation 688 m
RVO reported on 9 April that deformation measurements at Rabaul caldera during the previous 3-4 months showed an inflationary trend with a total of 4 cm of uplift. During 2-8 April seismicity was low and variable amounts of white vapor rose from Tavurvur cone.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 2-9 April seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. Ash plumes from hot avalanches rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 5 and 8 April. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the lava dome, and ash plumes that drifted about 100 km SE on 5 April. The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 April ash plumes were seen in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.
Soufriere Hills | Montserrat | 16.72°N, 62.18°W | Elevation 915 m
MVO reported that during 2-9 April activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. Rockfalls occurred sporadically from several areas of the lava dome. Multiple small areas of incandescence on the dome were visible several nights during the reporting period. Heavy rains on 2 April caused lahars in the Farm River and Trants area (NNE). The Hazard Level remained at 3.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambang||Gaua||Maly Semyachik||Sarychev Peak|
|Anatahan||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Apoyeque||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Axial Seamount||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere Hills|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufriere St. Vincent|
|Banda Api||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Iliamna||Myojinsho||St. Helens|
|Bezymianny||Inielika||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Callaqui||Kadovar||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kanaga||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Kavachi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tenerife|
|Concepcion||Kick 'em Jenny||Peuet Sague||Tolbachik|
|Descabezado Grande||Kolokol Group||Rabaul||Ulawun|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Korovin||Ranakah||Unknown Source|
|Epi||Kverkfjoll||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Erta Ale||Lamongan||Ritter Island||Yasur|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lanin||Ruang||Zavodovski|
|Fernandina||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotolo||Salak|
|Fourpeaked||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:
Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.
Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.
For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement
RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)