Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 April-4 May 2010.


















 Activity for the week of 28 April-4 May 2010

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Eyjafjallajokull Iceland New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Reventador Ecuador New
Rinjani Lombok Island (Indonesia) New
Santa Maria Guatemala New
Villarrica Chile New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Gaua Banks Islands (Vanuatu) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Eyjafjallajokull  | Iceland  | 63.633°N, 19.633°W  | Elevation 1651 m

The Institute of Earth Sciences at the Nordic Volcanological Center (NVC) reported that during 28 April-4 May the eruption from Eyjafjallajökull continued to emit lava and produce steam and ash plumes. Booming sounds in the vicinity of the volcano were often heard. Scientists continued to measure meltwater discharge that flowed down the Gígjökull glacier into the Gígjökull lake basin, then into the Markarfljót River. On 30 April steaming blocks were deposited in the basin, and on 2 May, steam rising from the delta in the lake basin suggested near-boiling water temperatures.

On 28 April the eruption plume was not detected over 4 km altitude (13,100 ft) a.s.l., the level of meteorological clouds. Steam plumes rose above the lava that advanced N down the Gígjöjkull Glacier. Ash plumes rose above the crater; ashfall was seen on the W flanks and in an area about 32 km W. The next day the eruption plume was not visible, but likely did not exceed an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in areas 1.5 km SW and 12 km SSW.

Steam plumes on 30 April rose to altitude of 4.5-5.1 km (14,800-16,700 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes rose to lower altitudes, drifted S, and deposited ash in areas 10 km away. Ash plumes rose slightly higher the next day, to an altitude of 5.4 km (17,700 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was noted in areas 22 km SE. An active lava flow to the N continued to generate steam plumes from interaction with ice.

A report on 2 May stated that during the previous 2-3 days ash plumes had become darker and wider than in the preceding week, explosivity had increased, and tephra fall-out had increased. The location of the steam plume N of the crater indicated that the lava flow had advanced more than 3 km from the crater. Steam and ash plumes continued to rise from the crater. Ashfall was reported in an area 40 km SE. The scoria cone at the crater continued to build. Conditions on 3 May were similar. The largest eruption plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was noted 65-70 km ESE, and ash plumes were seen over the village of Vík, 40 km SE. The eruption plume was seen in satellite imagery as far as 200 km from Eyjafjallajökull on both days.

On 4 May ash plumes rose above the crater and steam plumes rose from the N flank. Lava had traveled 4 km N from the crater, and lava was ejected a few hundred meters from the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas 65-80 km ESE, cutting visibility to less than a few kilometers. An eruption plume was seen in satellite imagery as far as 400 km ESE to SE. According to news articles, airports throughout Ireland were temporarily shut down on 4 May due to ash-plume hazards.

Sources: Associated Press, Institute of Earth Sciences



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 April seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Volcanologists working in the area on 20 and 21 April saw gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash rise to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. At night, Strombolian activity was occasionally observed. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

The IG reported that on 29 April an explosion from Reventador produced a steam plume with low ash content. Meteorological clouds mostly prevented observations during 30 April-4 May.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Rinjani  | Lombok Island (Indonesia)  | 8.42°S, 116.47°E  | Elevation 3726 m

CVGHM reported that observers at a post located 12.5 km NE of Rinjani saw one whitish-colored plume that rose 100 m from the volcano during February. Dense whitish plumes (and possibly brown) rose 500-900 m in March on 26 occasions and as high as 1,500 m in April on 41 occasions. Plumes seen on 1 and 2 May were "chocolate" in color and rose a maximum height of 1,600 m. From February through April seismicity decreased, although the maximum amplitude of earthquakes increased. CVGHM also noted that ash eruptions and ejected incandescent material fell within Rinjani caldera, but some ash was blown out of the caldera. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 2 May.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

On 30 April, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.7 km (9,200-12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Ashfall was reported in towns downwind. Fumarolic plumes rose 300 m above Caliente dome. A lahar traveled S down the Nima I River, carrying blocks up to 90 cm in diameter. On 4 May an ash plume rose to a maximum altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during February incandescence from Villarrica was seen at night through web cameras. The report reiterated that incandescence was typical; the Alert level remained at Green, Level 1. Video and photographs taken during 24-25 April, and posted on the Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI) website, showed Strombolian activity in the crater. Bursts of lava ejected from an unseen source did not rise above the crater rim. Gas plumes rose from the crater.

Sources: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 April-5 May explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes. Those plumes, along with ash plumes occasionally seen by pilots, rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NE, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 and 30 April and during 1-3 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km SW, W, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 May an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting about 90 km W at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Gaua  | Banks Islands (Vanuatu)  | 14.27°S, 167.5°E  | Elevation 797 m

Based on information from the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 29 April and 2 May ash plumes from Gaua were seen on satellite imagery drifting W and NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 28 April-4 May HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued at the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, episodic rising and falling of the lava-pool surface continued at the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema`uma`u crater; glow from the vent was visible. On most mornings the plume of gas and ash from the summit vent drifted NW, W, and SW. On 29 April small rockfalls disrupted the surface of the pond, producing "dusty" plumes. Sulfur dioxide emission rates measured at the summit during 28-29 April were in the 800-1,000 tonnes/day range.

At the east rift zone, lava flowed through tubes to supply a surface flow that had advanced down the Pulama pali, onto the coastal plain, heading S, and reached the ocean on 29 April. Lava continued to flow into the ocean, just W of the "old" coastal viewing area during the rest of the reporting period. Lava also flowed along the E margin, between the highway and the coast. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 22-30 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity was noted and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash were seen on 22 April. Similar plumes rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (23,900 ft) a.s.l. during 25-27 April, and drifted W and SW. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano. An ash plume drifted about 65 km W on 24 April, and gas-and-steam plumes drifted 55 km W and SW during 24-27 April. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 May a possible eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 April seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels and suggested that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (18,700 ft) a.s.l. During 22-25 April ash plumes from hot avalanches rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and fumarolic activity from the lava dome was noted. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the lava dome, and ash plumes that drifted about 60 km SE on 28 April. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 29 April, and during 1 and 4-5 May. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

Search by Volcano
Agung Fuego Llaima San Cristobal
Ahyi Fujisan Loihi San Miguel
Aira Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung San Vicente
Akan Galeras Lopevi Sangay
Alaid Galunggung Machin Sangeang Api
Alu-Dalafilla Gamalama Makian Santa Ana
Ambae Gamkonora Makushin Santa Maria
Ambang Gaua Maly Semyachik Sarigan
Ambrym Gorely Manam Sarychev Peak
Anatahan Great Sitkin Manda Hararo Saunders
Antuco Grimsvotn Marapi Semeru
Apoyeque Guagua Pichincha Maroa Semisopochnoi
Arenal Guallatiri Martin Seulawah Agam
Asamayama Guntur Masaya Sheveluch
Askja Hachijojima Mauna Loa Shishaldin
Asosan Hakoneyama Mayon Simbo
Augustine Heard McDonald Islands Sinabung
Avachinsky Hekla Melimoyu Sinarka
Awu Hierro Merapi Siple
Axial Seamount Hokkaido-Komagatake Metis Shoal Sirung
Azul, Cerro Home Reef Midagahara Slamet
Azumayama Hood Misti, El Soputan
Bagana Hudson, Cerro Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Balbi Huila, Nevado del Momotombo Sotara
Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
Search by Date
Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.





 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement


RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)