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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 26 May-1 June 2010.


















 Activity for the week of 26 May-1 June 2010

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Arenal Costa Rica New
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) New
Pacaya Guatemala New
Pagan Mariana Islands (USA) New
South Sarigan Seamount Mariana Islands (USA) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
Yasur Vanuatu New

Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Eyjafjallajokull Iceland Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Gaua Banks Islands (Vanuatu) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sarychev Peak Matua Island (Russia) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Arenal  | Costa Rica  | 10.463°N, 84.703°W  | Elevation 1670 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 24 May a series of incandescent flows descended the W flank, towards the lake, reaching the forest. An ash plume drifted N. Arenal National Park was closed briefly due to the activity.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that some earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Bezymianny's lava dome during 23-24 May, even though much of the seismicity was obscured by strong activity from Kliuchevskoi. Fumarolic activity was seen on 21 May. The temperature of the thermal anomaly detected in satellite imagery increased from 18 degrees Celsius on 19 May to 48.8 degrees Celsius on 23 May. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Orange. During 21-28 May satellite data showed a variable but daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome. Fumarolic activity was occasionally detected, and another seismic event was recorded on 24 May.

Seismic data indicated that an explosive eruption began on 1 June, producing a large ash cloud about 127 by 93 km in dimension. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Red. Further analyses showed that ash plumes from two explosions rose to altitudes of 8-10 km (26,200-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted at first 250 km W and then 160 km N and NE. Ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk village, 45 km W. Two bright thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery, possibly from pyroclastic flow deposits. The next day, strong gas-and-steam emissions rose from the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported a small ash emission from Cleveland on 30 May. A detached plume seen in satellite imagery rose no higher than 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Satellite images the next day revealed minor (uncharacterized) flow deposits on the upper flanks. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Kirishimayama  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.934°N, 130.862°E  | Elevation 1700 m

According to JMA, a small eruption from Shinmoe-dake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishima volcano group, on 27 May produced an ash plume that rose 100 m above the crater rim. Ashfall was noted in areas within 6 km. Emissions gradually decreased.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

A Strombolian eruption from Pacaya's MacKenney cone that began on 27 May was characterized in a report from CONRED as having constant explosions that ejected material 500 m into the air. Ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in multiple areas. The community of El Patrocinio (about 5 km W) evacuated and residents in El Rodeo (4 km WSW) were ordered to evacuate. Due to extensive tephra fall, authorities recommended that residents clean off ash from their roofs and refrain from driving.

INSIVUMEH reported a continuing series of explosions 5-10 seconds apart that ejected black ash up to 1 km above the crater on 28 May. Seismic signals reflected the explosions in addition to tremor. Ash plumes drifted 20-30 km NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind, including in Guatemala City, about 30 km NNE. CONRED reported a short time later that about 1,600 people had been evacuated from six towns 3-4 km W, NNW, N, and NNE, and that Aurora International Airport was closed. According to a map posted by CONRED, blocks fell in areas as far away as 12 km NE and ash was reported in areas E of Chinautla, 37 km NNE. News media reported that one person (a reporter) died and three children were missing.

On 29 May, a 90-m-wide lava flow that traveled SSE at an estimated rate of 100 m per hour burned three houses on the Pacaya Grande ranch. The lava was within 450 m of some other properties including El Chupadero, located 2-2.5 km S of the crater, and disrupted an access road from El Caracol (3 km SW) and Los Pocitos (5.5 km S). Explosions ejected ash 300-500 m above the crater. INSIVUMEH reported on 1 June that the Strombolian activity continued. Explosions ejected ash as high as 700 m above the crater and ash plumes drifted NW. Two lava flows were seen traveling SW and SE.

Sources: Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Reuters



Volcano index photo  Pagan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 18.13°N, 145.8°E  | Elevation 570 m

Gas-and-steam plumes from Pagan continued to be observed in satellite imagery during 21-28 May. Reports from researchers camped on the island, and imagery analyses, suggested that trace amounts of ash were intermittently present in the plumes during 23-26 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



South Sarigan Seamount  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 16.58°N, 145.78°E  | Elevation -184 m

On 27 May an observer from the Emergency Management Office (EMO) in Saipan photographed an area of discolored ocean water and possible light-colored floating material about 7 km S of Sarigan during an overflight. The area was about 1.6 km long, although the scale was difficult to discern from photographs. Two days later, the area of affected water was about twice the size of Sarigan Island. According to a news article, U.S. Fish and Wildlife evacuated 16 people, mostly scientists, to Saipan from a few area islands, including eight people from Sarigan.

On 30 May a plume of mostly water vapor was seen in satellite imagery rising to a possible altitude of 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipating as it drifted S. The eruption was attributed to a 300-m-deep submarine vent on Sarigan's S flank, about 7 km from the island. Observers on Sarigan reported hearing a loud explosion from the S, and shortly thereafter received ashfall. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Both seismicity at a single nearby station on Sarigan and subaqueous activity declined after the plume emission. The next day the Volcano Alert Level was reduced to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was reduced to Yellow.

Sources: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program, Saipan Tribune



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that on 26 May a strong explosion from Tungurahua generated pyroclastic flows and an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 12 km (39,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas to the S and SW, including Riobamba (30 km S). Noises resembling "cannon shots" associated with the explosion were heard as far away as Guadalupe, 11 km N. The pyroclastic flows were small and traveled 800-1,000 m down the N, NW, W, and SW flanks; they did not reach populated areas. Poor visibility mostly prevented observations of the crater the next day, but no activity was seen when the crater was visible. Slight ashfall was reported in Cahuají.

On 28 May another strong explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. Pumice blocks fell in local neighborhoods (likely 6-8 km away), and ash fell in several areas between Tungurahua and Guayaquil (about 180 km SW), and beyond. Pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3 km down the NW, W, and SW flanks, but again did not reach populated areas. According to news articles, residents from two towns about 8 km NW were evacuated and the airport in Guayaquil was temporarily closed because the runways were covered in ash. Other flights passing through the area were rerouted.

During 28-29 May seismicity increased and 5-10 explosions were detected per hour. Explosions ejected incandescent blocks that fell 1-2 km below the summit. Ashfall was heavy in Runtún, 6 km NNE, at night on 28 May, and lighter in Juive and Puntzán, 7 km NW, the next morning. During 29-30 May explosions occurred at a rate of about 10 per hour. Several roaring noises were noted and "cannon shot" noises caused large windows nearby to vibrate. Incandescence around the crater was seen occasionally at night, during periods of clearer viewing. On 31 May and 1 June explosions generated audible "cannon shots" and ejected incandescent blocks as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim; several of the blocks rolled nearly 1 km down the flanks. Steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-9 km (23,000-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, N, and NE, causing ashfall in areas downwind.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Reuters



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

RVO reported that during 22-28 May Ulawun emitted thick white vapor plumes that rose 800 m high. Some areas of the plumes were gray on 22 and 25 May. People on the S and SE sides of the island heard "low jetting" noises during 24-25 May. Weak and fluctuating incandescence was seen at night during 28-29 May by people on the S part of the island. The emissions changed color to gray on 29 May and continued similarly the next two days. On 30 May very fine ashfall was reported in areas to the SSW, S, and SSE. On 1 and 2 June only white vapor emissions were noted. RVO recommended to the WNB Provincial Disaster Committee to declare a Stage 1 Alert to reflect an increasing trend of seismic energy, and a recent presence of occasional gray plumes, incandescence, and audible noises from Ulawun.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Yasur  | Vanuatu  | 19.532°S, 169.447°E  | Elevation 361 m

The Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) for Yasur was increased to 3 (on a scale of 0-4) on 27 May. Recent activity was characterized by moderate to large eruptions with strong explosions, ejected bombs that fell on the visitor viewing area, and significant ashfall in nearby villages. Visitors were not allowed to enter a restricted zone, within about 500 m around the volcano. Activity had been escalating since January 2010. According to a news article, an eruption plume on 1 June rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and spread over 340 square kilometers, canceling or delaying some flights in and out of New Caledonia (about 430 km WSW).

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Notimex, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Alaid  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 50.861°N, 155.565°E  | Elevation 2285 m

KVERT reported that on 23 May a gas-and-steam plume from Alaid was seen in satellite imagery drifting 11 km ESE. No other signs of possible increasing activity were seen in imagery or noted by observers on Paramushir Island during 21-28 May. KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-28 May and drifted 30-185 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Eyjafjallajokull  | Iceland  | 63.633°N, 19.633°W  | Elevation 1651 m

The Nordic Volcanological Center (NVC) at the Institute of Earth Sciences reported that on 26 May steam plumes from Eyjafjallajökull rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. The crater was not seen through the web cameras due to poor visibility from remobilized, blowing ash. Scientists conducted an expedition to the summit crater the next day. They measured the tephra deposits around the E half of the craters, and found that they were about 40 m thick closest to the craters. Steam rose from the crater, punctuated by a few small ash-bearing explosions, and a sulfur odor was strong nearby. On 31 May and 1 June, widespread drifting of existing ash was noted in SW Iceland. Meteorological clouds prevented views of the summit craters.

Source: Institute of Earth Sciences



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported on 29 May that abundant rains from tropical storm Agatha triggered lahars in ravines to Fuego's SW and SE.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Gaua  | Banks Islands (Vanuatu)  | 14.27°S, 167.5°E  | Elevation 797 m

Based on information from the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 26 May an ash plume from Gaua rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 21-28 May seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 63 km S and W during 24-26 May. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 26 May-1 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of the circulating, crusting, and bubbling lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. On 31 May the surface rose to the highest level yet recorded, but was still more than 100 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system had advanced down the Pulama pali onto the coastal plain and headed S, entering the ocean at Ki. Other lava flows were active above the pali. On 27 May geologists noted a small rootless shield building up at a break-out point at 580 m elevation. Small lava flows issued from vents on Pu'u 'O'o's S crater wall during 26-27 May, and pooled on the crater floor at least through 31 May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 21-28 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes occasionally containing a small amount of ash were also noted. During 23-26 May observed ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 185 km in multiple directions on 24 and 26 May. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

The IG reported a lahar on Reventador's E flank, detected for 90 minutes by the seismic network on 25 May. It destroyed a bridge over the Marker River, disrupting the route from Baeza to Lago Agrio.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported on 29 May that abundant rains from tropical storm Agatha triggered lahars in Santa Maria's S ravines.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sarychev Peak  | Matua Island (Russia)  | 48.092°N, 153.2°E  | Elevation 1496 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly on Sarychev Peak was detected by satellite on 27 May. Sarychev Peak does not have a seismic network; satellite image observations are the primary tool for monitoring many of the Kurile Islands volcanoes.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 21-28 May seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.7 km (15,400 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a large daily thermal anomaly, and an ash plume that drifted 10 km NE on 23 May. Observations revealed fumarolic activity, and ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. on 24 and 25 May. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)