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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 2 February-8 February 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 2 February-8 February 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Fuego Guatemala New
Galeras Colombia New
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) New
Nyiragongo DR Congo New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Villarrica Chile Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 2-3 February Fuego produced 27 explosions with ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater and drifted 7 km W and SW. The explosions generated shock waves detected as far away as 5 km W and SW, in Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II, and Morelia. Block avalanches descended the Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, Cenizas, and Trinidad drainages to the SW. During 6-8 February explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W and SW. At night incandescence was observed emanating from the crater and explosions sometimes ejected incandescent material 100 m above the crater rim.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

On 8 February, INGEOMINAS reported that "tornillo-type" earthquakes from Galeras had not been detected since 5 February. Seismic levels continued to fluctuate. On 6 February an overflight revealed that gas emissions had increased in comparison to the previous week, forming plumes that drifted NW. The Alert Level was lowered to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Kirishimayama  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.934°N, 130.862°E  | Elevation 1700 m

According to a news article, explosions on 2 February from Shinmoe-dake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishima volcano group, disrupted flights to Tokyo. The article also noted that JMA widened the restricted zone to a 4-km-radius around the crater. About 600 people from Miyazaki (55 km E) had evacuated.

Based on reports from JMA, analyses of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-8 February ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.6 km (5,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 3 February, a pilot noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

According to JMA, scientists observed Shinmoe-dake during an overflight on 6 February and noted that the lava dome was about 600 m in diameter, similar to observations from four days prior. Gas plumes rose from the edges of the lava dome, from multiple areas on the E side of the dome, and from a central vent. Ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo), Asia One



Volcano index photo  Nyiragongo  | DR Congo  | 1.52°S, 29.25°E  | Elevation 3470 m

The Toulouse VAAC reported that during 4-5 February diffuse plumes, likely composed primarily of sulfur dioxide gas, were observed in satellite imagery.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-8 February explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.4 km (4,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. During 3-4 and 7 February, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. According to a news article, an eruption on 8 February produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 2 km. A large amount of ashfall prompted local authorities to temporarily ban residents from driving near the area.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Arirang News



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that during 28 January-4 February seismicity from Bezymianny did not exceed background levels, however weak volcanic earthquakes were detected. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed daily in satellite imagery. Gas and steam activity was observed during 30-31 January and 1-3 February; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity was detected at Karymsky during 28 January-4 February. Seismic data showed that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.7 km (15,400 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly, and ash plumes were observed drifting 120 km E during 30-31 January and 1-2 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 2-8 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 100 m below the crater floor, periodically rising or falling. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted mostly SW, W, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube in a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation continued to advance both E and W, producing scattered surface flows. At the lowest elevation of the E branch, lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana, periodically burning vegetation, and to the S towards the coast. On 4 February incandescence from the TEB vent and upper rootless shields visible on the web camera was later confirmed to be from spatter and lava flows. Lava continued to issue from each location during 5-8 February. Multiple small ocean entries were active on the W part of the Puhi-o-Kalaikini lava delta until 7 or 8 February.

In Pu'u 'O'o crater, incandescence emanated from the fuming vent in the E wall of the crater, and spatter and lava flows were produced from a cone on the N portion of the crater floor. On 7 February activity significantly increased; lava flowed from several vents including the vent on the E wall and multiple spatter cones on the N and NW areas of the floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 28 January-4 February seismicity from Kizimen was high but variable, and many shallow volcanic earthquakes as well as volcanic tremor continued to be detected. Satellite images showed a bright thermal anomaly over the volcano daily. During 27-31 January and 1-3 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 430 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 8 February an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED noted that steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl during 2-8 February.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 2 February an ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted less than 30 km SW and quickly dissipated. INSIVUMEH reported that during 2-3 February explosions produced ash plumes that rose 300 m above Caliente dome and drifted S and SW. On 4 February the VAAC noted that an ash plume was detected in satellite imagery. INSIVUMEH notices also stated that fumarolic plumes rose as high as 150 m above the dome during 2-3 and 6-7 February and drifted SE and W. Several landslides on the flanks occurred during 6-7 February. Explosions during 7-8 February produced ash plumes that rose 400 m above the dome and drifted SE.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity was detected at Shiveluch during 28 January-4 February and many volcanic earthquakes were detected. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was observed in satellite imagery. Gas and steam activity was occasionally observed. Ash plumes were seen rising to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. on 30 January and 3 February. Ash plumes observed in satellite imagery drifted 120 km NE during 31 Janaury-1 February, and rose to altitudes of 6-8 km (19,700-26,200 ft) a.s.l. on 1 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 8 February a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent notices that day stated that ash had dissipated.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 February an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 0.7 km (2,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Explosions during 5-7 February were noted by JMA.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

CVGHM reported that on 5 February volcanic bombs ejected from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone were found 1.2-1.4 km from the crater rim. During 5-8 February gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted ENE. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away. Roaring and booming noises were noted. Ash fell at the Bromo observation post, and in nearby villages including Ngadirejo (10 km WNW), Sukapura (14 km NE), and Sumber (18 km E). High-amplitude seismicity and volcanic tremor were detected. Deformation measurements had remained stable since 31 December 2010. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 7 February diffuse gas-and-steam plumes rose from Villarrica and quickly dissipated.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

Search by Volcano
Agung Fourpeaked Lewotolo Sakar
Ahyi Fuego Little Sitkin Salak
Aira Fujisan Llaima San Cristobal
Akan Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Loihi San Miguel
Alaid Galeras Lokon-Empung San Vicente
Alu-Dalafilla Galunggung Lopevi Sangay
Ambae Gamalama Machin Sangeang Api
Ambang Gamkonora Makian Santa Ana
Ambrym Gaua Makushin Santa Maria
Anatahan Gorely Maly Semyachik Sarigan
Antuco Great Sitkin Manam Sarychev Peak
Apoyeque Grimsvotn Manda Hararo Saunders
Arenal Guagua Pichincha Marapi Semeru
Asamayama Guallatiri Maroa Semisopochnoi
Askja Guntur Martin Seulawah Agam
Asosan Hachijojima Masaya Sheveluch
Augustine Hakoneyama Mauna Loa Shishaldin
Avachinsky Heard Mayon Simbo
Awu Hekla McDonald Islands Sinabung
Axial Seamount Hierro Melimoyu Sinarka
Azul, Cerro Hokkaido-Komagatake Merapi Siple
Azumayama Home Reef Metis Shoal Sirung
Bagana Hood Midagahara Slamet
Balbi Hudson, Cerro Misti, El Soputan
Bamus Huila, Nevado del Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Momotombo Sotara
Bardarbunga Ibu Monowai Soufriere Hills
Barren Island Ijen Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Batur Iliamna Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Bezymianny Iliwerung Mutnovsky Spurr
Bogoslof Inielika Myojinsho St. Helens
Brava Ioto Nabro Stromboli
Bristol Island Iya Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nightingale Island Sundoro
Callaqui Kaba Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Cameroon Kadovar Nisyros Suwanosejima
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Novarupta Taal
Cayambe Kanaga NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Cereme Kanlaon Nyamuragira Takawangha
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Nyiragongo Talang
Chaiten Karkar Okataina Tambora
Chiginagak Karthala Okmok Tanaga
Chikurachki Karymsky Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirpoi Kelimutu Pagan Telica
Cleveland Kelut Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Colima Kerinci Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Colo Ketoi Panarea Three Sisters
Concepcion Kharimkotan Papandayan Tinakula
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Parker Tofua
Cotopaxi Kikai Pavlof Tokachidake
Cuicocha Kilauea Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cumbal Kirishimayama Pinatubo Toliman
Dabbahu Kizimen Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Poas Tungurahua
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Dukono Koryaksky Rabaul Ulawun
Ebeko Krakatau Ranakah Unknown Source
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Ekarma Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Epi Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Erebus Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erta Ale Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Etna Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fonualei Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)