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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 18 May-24 May 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 18 May-24 May 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) New
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java (Indonesia) New
Grimsvotn Iceland New
Telica Nicaragua New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

Based on notices from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-22 May ash plumes from Aso rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and SE. A pilot noted on 18 May that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dieng Volcanic Complex  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.2°S, 109.879°E  | Elevation 2565 m

CVGHM reported that during 18-22 May seismicity at Dieng Volcanic Complex increased. On 22 May diffuse white plumes rose 20 m from the Timbang cone; plumes from the cone had not been previously observed. The next day carbon dioxide gas emissions increased. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Grimsvotn  | Iceland  | 64.416°N, 17.316°W  | Elevation 1719 m

According to scientists from the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office, an eruption from the subglacial Grímsvötn volcano began on 21 May following about an hour of tremor. A GPS-station on the rim of the Grímsvötn caldera had revealed continuous inflation and expansion of few centimeters per year since the 2004 eruption, interpreted as inflow of magma to a shallow chamber. Other precursors over the previous few months were increased seismicity, including some bursts of tremor, and increased geothermal activity.

The eruption began at 1630 on 21 May, and at 2000 the eruption plume rose to an altitude over 20 km (65,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume altitude fell to 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. during the night but occasionally still rose to 20 km (65,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash from the lower part of the eruption plume drifted S and at higher altitudes drifted E. A few hours after the onset of the eruption ashfall began over areas S of the Vatnajökull ice cap, more than 50 km from the eruption site. Earthquake locations and limited observations during an initial overflight suggested that the eruption site was in the SW part of the caldera, where the 2004 eruption was located. According to news articles, the road in Skeidarársandur, S of Vatnajökull and part of the ring road around Iceland, closed and remained closed through 24 May.

During the morning of 22 May the plume rose to an altitude of 10-15 km (32,800-49,200 ft) a.s.l. The color of the plume was brown-to-grayish and sometimes black close to the source. Most of the plume drifted S, but lower parts traveled SW. Tephra fall was concentrated to the S and to a lesser extent N and E. In the afternoon lightning strikes ranged from 60-70 per hour (up to 300 during one hour) and were most frequent in the ash plume to the S. News outlets noted that the Keflavík airport closed. Ashfall was reported from the Reykjavík area in the SW to Tröllaskagi Peninsula in the N. An article also stated that, according to a geophysicist, the eruption was the largest for Grímsvötn in 100 years, was similar to the eruption of 1873, and was larger than the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of 2010.

During 22-23 May the ash plume rose to altitudes of 5-10 km (16,400-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S at lower altitudes and W at altitudes 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and higher. Ashfall was detected in several areas throughout Iceland except in some areas to the NW. On 24 May the ash plume was estimated to be mostly below 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. because meteorological clouds over the glacier were at 5-7 km (16,400-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and the plume only briefly rose above the cloud deck. Satellite images showed the plume extending over 800 km from the eruption site towards the S and SE. News articles reported that dozens of carriers rerouted or cancelled flights in Norway, Denmark, and Scotland.

Sources: Associated Press, Iceland Review, Icelandic Met Office (IMO), Institute of Earth Sciences, The Local (Sweden)



Volcano index photo  Telica  | Nicaragua  | 12.606°N, 86.84°W  | Elevation 1036 m

INETER reported that during April seismicity at Telica increased, with earthquake magnitudes ranging up to 3.3 and some explosions detected. On 14 May at approximately 2310 a series of explosions were detected by the seismic network and were accompanied by ash and gas emissions. Tephra fall was reported in La Quemada, 4 km N. During the previous few days residents in nearby communities observed reddish colored gas plumes, and those living on the flanks felt earthquakes. On 16 May the seismic network registered three explosions that were accompanied by gas-and-tephra emissions. One plume rose 1.2 km above the crater. Nearby communities to the SE, including Cristo Rey, Las Colinas, and La Quemada, were affected by the emissions.

During 17-18 May another series of small explosions was detected. A gas-and-ash plume rose 600 m above the crater. On 18 May an explosion that lasted 6 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 2.6 km above the crater. Fifteen explosions during 18-19 May were accompanied by gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500-800 m high. Women and children living on the flanks were evacuated. Explosions continued to be detected during 19-20 May with gas-and-ash plumes again rising 500-800 m above the crater. Residents on the N flank in the community of El Ñajo reported that new fumaroles had opened, prompting authorizes to plan for monitoring all wells within a 5-km-radius of Telica. During 20-21 May activity decreased. An observer reported four strong explosions and gas-and-tephra plumes that rose 500-700 m high.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that on 17 May new fumaroles on Tungurahua's W flank, about 1 km below the crater, were observed from the Tungurahua Observatory (OVT) in Guadalupe (11 km N). Explosions during 17-23 May produced gas-and-steam plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-29,500 ft) a.s.l and mostly drifted SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported on most days in areas within 8 km SW, W, NW, N, and NNE, but reached as far as Guadalupe (11 km N), Ambato (31 km NW), and Penipe (15 km SW). On 17 May incandescence emanated from the crater. Blocks were also ejected from the crater, and rolled down the flanks, on 17, 19, and 21 May. Sounds resembling "cannon shots" were occasionally reported. Large windows vibrated on 21 May. Ash-and-gas plumes rose from the crater on 24 May and likely drifted W.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

RVO reported that during 19-22 May gray-to-brown ash plumes rose above Ulawun and fine ash fell on the NW and W flanks. Weak, fluctuating incandescence was observed on 22 May.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-22 May explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted in multiple directions. On 21 May, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 May an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17 and 19-22 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-110 km W, NW, and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 2011 seismic activity from Chaitén remained low and that no growth of the lava-dome complex was detected. Visual observations indicated low emissions. The Alert Level was lowered to Green, Level 2, on a three-color scale.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 May an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Karymsky during 13-20 May. Seismic data indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery during 16-17 and 19 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 May an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 18-24 May. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava from a vent above the south side cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW and likely deposited very small amounts of ash nearby. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava mostly from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated several meters higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 52 m below the E crater rim on 11 May. On 20 May a small lobe of lava visible in the web camera appeared on the W edge of the crater floor. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 800 tonnes/day on 20 May; the emission rates were slowly increasing.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 13-20 May seismicity from Kizimen was above background levels, and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.9 km (19,400 ft) a.s.l. and 4.9 km (16,100 ft) a.s.l. on 14 and 17 May, respectively. Satellite images showed a large bright thermal anomaly daily on the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 24 km S and SE during 14-15 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that on 19 May steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. The Washington VAAC noted that satellite imagery on 22 May showed a rapidly dissipating area of ash about 650 km SW.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 15-16 May seismic data at Shiveluch indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. According to ground-based observations ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. on 15 May and to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. on 16 May. Satellite imagery showed ash plumes drifting 58 km SE on 15 May and a thermal anomaly over the lava dome during 15-16 and 19 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 13-20 May activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. On 15 May a pyroclastic flow that occurred in the February 2010 collapse scar caused light ashfall in inhabited areas. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Brava Ioto Nabro Stromboli
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Calbuco Jackson Segment Nightingale Island Sundoro
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Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Novarupta Taal
Cayambe Kanaga NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Cereme Kanlaon Nyamuragira Takawangha
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Nyiragongo Talang
Chaiten Karkar Okataina Tambora
Chiginagak Karthala Okmok Tanaga
Chikurachki Karymsky Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirpoi Kelimutu Pagan Telica
Cleveland Kelut Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Colima Kerinci Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Colo Ketoi Panarea Three Sisters
Concepcion Kharimkotan Papandayan Tinakula
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Parker Tofua
Cotopaxi Kikai Pavlof Tokachidake
Cuicocha Kilauea Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cumbal Kirishimayama Pinatubo Toliman
Dabbahu Kizimen Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Poas Tungurahua
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Dukono Koryaksky Rabaul Ulawun
Ebeko Krakatau Ranakah Unknown Source
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Ekarma Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Epi Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Erebus Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erta Ale Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Etna Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fonualei Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)