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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 13 July-19 July 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 13 July-19 July 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Kaba Indonesia New
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Nabro Eritrea New
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Chile New
Tofua Tonga Islands New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Seulawah Agam Indonesia Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on the evening of 11 July Strombolian activity began from Etna's Bocca Nuova crater, representing the first magmatic eruption since 2002. Incandescence was first recorded with a monitoring camera on the SE flank and was later visible from population centers in the SE sector of Etna. During the night of 12-13 July incandescence was more continuous and intense than during the previous night. At varying intervals, incandescent bombs that were ejected above the crater rim fell back into the crater. On 13 July volcanologists visited Bocca Nuova and observed a single large vent on the crater floor that was the source of the Strombolian activity. The strongest explosions ejected incandescent bombs several tens of meters above the crater rim. Most bombs fell back into the crater but some went over the rocky partition that divided Bocca Nuova from Voragine, and fell into the S portion of the latter.

In the evening of 15 July, volcanologists again visited Bocca Nuova and noted that the Strombolian activity had decreased slightly but within less than two hours had increased to levels greater than those observed on 13 July. Immediately to the W of the explosive vent, a lava flow was issuing from underneath a sheet of pyroclastic material deposited by the nearby Strombolian activity. The flow cascaded into a deeper depression in the W central portion of the crater floor.

On 16 July, a series of ash emissions from the pit crater located on the E flank of the SE Crater cone marked the resumption of explosive activity within the crater, and produced loud booming sounds that were widely heard in populated areas on Etna's flanks. On the evening on 18 July Strombolian activity increased and culminated into a new paroxysmal eruptive episode on 19 July. Lava flows traveled down the steep W slope of the Valle del Bove, following the same path as the lavas emitted during the preceding eruptive episodes, and stagnated at the base near Monte Centenari. Lava fountains rose 200-250 m and produced heavy fallout of fluid spatter, forming several lava flows. The largest lava flow descended the S flank of the cone reaching the base. A dense plume of gas and ash drifted E.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Kaba  | Indonesia  | 3.522°S, 102.615°E  | Elevation 1940 m

On 14 July CVGHM reported that, since the Alert Level for Kaba was raised on 20 October 2009, seismicity had fluctuated but decreased overall. During September 2009-May 2011, when weather permitted, white plumes were seen rising 25-300 m above the crater rim, and during June-July 2011 diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

According to news articles, three eruptions during 14-15 July from Tompaluan crater, in the saddle between the Lokon-Empung peaks, ejected lava and ash, and caused forest fires on the W flank. A local mayor noted that 6,000 people were in shelters and one person had died from a heart attack while evacuating. Other articles stated that 5,200 people had evacuated. Explosions during 17-18 July produced ash plumes that rose 0.6-3.5 km above the crater.

Sources: Daily Mail, Agence France-Presse (AFP)



Volcano index photo  Nabro  | Eritrea  | 13.37°N, 41.7°E  | Elevation 2218 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that on 16 July an ash plume from Nabro rose to altitudes below 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. A weak eruption detected on 17 July decreased through the day then appeared to have stopped.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Puyehue-Cordon Caulle  | Chile  | 40.59°S, 72.117°W  | Elevation 2236 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 12 and 14 July cameras installed around the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex recorded eruption plumes that rose no higher than 2 km above the Cordón Caulle rift zone and drifted E; weather prevented observations of the plume on 13 July. Seismic activity declined significantly. On 15 July satellite imagery showed a plume drifting 80 km E and seismic signals indicated that lava started to flow again. The effusion rate increased on 16 July, however weather again prevented observations. A light gray plume on 17 July rose 2 km above the crater and was observed in satellite imagery drifting 240 km E. According to a news article, the first plane landed at the airport in Bariloche, about 100 km E, since the airport had closed on 4 June. On 18 July a gray plume rose 5 km above the crater and drifted 150 km NW. Incandescent material observed at night was ejected 500 m above the crater and lava flows continued to be active. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), MercoPress



Volcano index photo  Tofua  | Tonga Islands  | 19.75°S, 175.07°W  | Elevation 515 m

Based on information from Tonga Meteorological Services and pilot observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that a cloud from Tofua rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-19 July plumes from Sakura-jima rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted W, NW, and N. On 18 July, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. Explosions were reported the next day.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 July explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted W. Incandescence at night emanated from a 100-m-long lava flow on the S flank. Block avalanches reached vegetated areas.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 8-15 July moderate seismic activity continued at Karymsky and possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly on the volcano was detected by satellite on 8, 11, and 14 July. An ash plume observed by pilots on 12 July drifted 20 km SW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 13-19 July. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated deep in the 150-m-diameter vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater and circulated with various patterns. Spattering occurred at locations along the edge of the lake. Periodic measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and occasionally fresh spatter nearby.

The preliminary sulfur dioxide emission rate from all of the east rift zone sources was 1,500 tonnes/day on 12 July, the highest emission rate since the end of the Kamoamoa eruption in early March. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the NE edge and, to a lesser degree, along the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The near-vertical rim of the perched pond continued to be uplifted until through 17 July; the crater floor and perched lake rims formed a nearly-continuous ramp sloping away from the lake. The lava lake surface of the perched lava lake was elevated about 6 m higher than the surrounding crater floor and the rim was a few meters higher than the surface; the crater floor was 19 m below the E crater rim. Since the last measurements on 29 June, the crater floor had been uplifted about 1 m per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 8-15 July seismicity from Kizimen was above background levels and volcanic tremor continued to be detected. Satellite images showed a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano all week. Seismic data indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. on 10 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 19 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 July explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 500 m above Caliente dome and drifted E. An explosion and loud rumbling was heard 10 km away. Lava flows were active on the E and SW flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Seulawah Agam  | Indonesia  | 5.448°N, 95.658°E  | Elevation 1810 m

CVGHM reported that during October 2010-July 2011 activity at Seulawah Agam decreased. Measurements indicated that seismicity decreased, water temperature decreased and pH levels were stable, gas emissions were lower, and no significant surface changes were observed. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was moderate during 8-15 July and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 10-11 and 14 July and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 38 km SE on 10 July. Ground-based observers noted that ash plumes from explosions rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. on 11 and 14 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 July an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)