Activity for the week of 4 April-10 April 2012
Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 4 April-10 April 2012.
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 4 April-10 April 2012.
Activity for the week of 4 April-10 April 2012
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||New|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||New|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Pagan||Mariana Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Ranakah||Flores Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Tambora||Sumbawa Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that a small explosion from Cleveland was detected at 0112 on 4 April by distant seismic stations and infrasound arrays. Weather conditions prevented the detection of a possible eruption cloud in satellite images or by visual observation of the summit. Observations the next day revealed a thermal anomaly and that the 70-m-diameter lava dome had been destroyed by the explosion. This was the third lava dome that was erupted and subsequently destroyed by explosive events since the eruption began in July 2011.
On 6 April two short-duration explosions occurred at about 1635 and 2126. The resulting eruption clouds were ash poor and did not rise above 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Elevated surface temperatures were observed using infrared satellite images near the times of the explosions. Satellite observations were obscured by clouds during 8-10 April. No seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 April explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 100-900 m above the crater and drifted 10-15 km E and SE. Explosions produced shock waves detected within 8 km of the volcano. Avalanches descended the flanks.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
According to INGEOMINAS, the Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 4-10 April seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz fluctuated but remained elevated. Sulfur dioxide emissions also remained high; occasionally a sulfur odor was reported in Manizales, about 25 km NW. On 5 April a volcano-tectonic earthquake, M 2.8, occurred below Arenas crater at a depth of 1 km, and was the highest magnitude earthquake recorded since February. During 4-6 April gas-and-steam plumes drifted NW. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 3 km above the crater on 7 April and 1.5 km above the crater on 10 April; the plumes drifted SE both days. The Alert Level remained at II (Orange; "eruption likely within days or weeks").
Soufriere Hills | Montserrat | 16.72°N, 62.18°W | Elevation 915 m
MVO reported that during 30 March-6 April activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was generally at a low level and no ash-venting episodes had been detected since 23 March. The average sulfur dioxide emission rate measured during the week was 529 tonnes per day with a minimum of 200 and a maximum of 1,033. Scientists aboard a helicopter overflight on 4 April observed a new vent which had formed on 23 March; it was 30-50 m across and on the W side of the crater floor. The Hazard Level remained at 2.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that during 30 March-6 April moderate seismic activity from Karymsky continued to be detected, and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the volcano on 29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 4-10 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, and occasionally fresh spatter, nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a lava pond in a small pit on the E edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.6 km from the coast. During 6-9 April a small lava flow issued three times from a vent on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The first two flows advanced N almost the entire width of the floor.
Pagan | Mariana Islands (USA) | 18.13°N, 145.8°E | Elevation 570 m
Clear-to-partly-cloudy satellite images of Pagan showed a gas-and-steam plume extending downwind from the summit vent during 30 March-6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. According to the Washington VAAC a pilot observed a plume containing a small amount of ash that rose to an altitude below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 7 April. Satellite imagery showed a gas-and-steam plume, with possible ash content, drifting 204 km SSW.
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle | Chile | 40.59°S, 72.117°W | Elevation 2236 m
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 9-10 April satellite and web camera observations of the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, showed plumes that rose no higher than 450 m above the crater. Incandescence from the crater was also observed. The Alert Level remained at Orange.
Ranakah | Flores Island (Indonesia) | 8.62°S, 120.52°E | Elevation 2350 m
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.757°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3745 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and reports from INSIVUMEH, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 April multiple ash clouds from explosions at Santa María drifted 37 km SW and 11 km S. INSIVUMEH reported that during 8-10 April explosions from Caliente dome generated ash plumes that rose 600-900 m above the dome and drifted 15 km S and SW. Lava flows continued to produce avalanches that descended the flanks.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that explosive activity at Shiveluch continued during 29 March-6 April. Ground-based observers and satellite imagery indicated that a viscous lava flow continued to effuse in the crater formed during a 2010 eruption. Visual observations revealed that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. on 30 March and 3 April. Seismic data indicated that ash plumes potentially rose to an altitude of 6.6 km (21,600 ft) a.s.l. every day. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 29-31 March and 3 April, and ash plumes that drifted 114 km W, E, and NE during 29-30 March and 3 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Tambora | Sumbawa Island (Indonesia) | 8.25°S, 118°E | Elevation 2850 m
CVGHM reported that during January-8 April plumes did not rise from Tambora, no changes were observed around the caldera, and seismicity decreased. On 9 April the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that during 4-8 April visual observations of Tungurahua were limited due to cloud cover. During 9-10 April ash-and-steam plumes rose 2-3 km above the crater and drifted from NE to SE. Explosions were heard in areas near the volcano. Ashfall was reported in Capil, Palictahua, and Los Toctes on 9 April. Lahars descended the W flank on 10 April and caused the road between Baños and Penipe to close.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambang||Gaua||Maly Semyachik||Sarychev Peak|
|Anatahan||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Apoyeque||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Axial Seamount||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere Hills|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufriere St. Vincent|
|Banda Api||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Iliamna||Myojinsho||St. Helens|
|Bezymianny||Inielika||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Callaqui||Kadovar||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kanaga||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Kavachi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tenerife|
|Concepcion||Kick 'em Jenny||Peuet Sague||Tolbachik|
|Descabezado Grande||Kolokol Group||Rabaul||Ulawun|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Korovin||Ranakah||Unknown Source|
|Epi||Kverkfjoll||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Erta Ale||Lamongan||Ritter Island||Yasur|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lanin||Ruang||Zavodovski|
|Fernandina||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotolo||Salak|
|Fourpeaked||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)