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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 6 March-12 March 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 6 March-12 March 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Descabezado Grande Chile New
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java (Indonesia) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Fuego Guatemala New
Pacaya Guatemala New
Tangkubanparahu Western Java (Indonesia) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Ambae Vanuatu Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Paluweh Indonesia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that during 6-7 March clouds obscured satellite views of Cleveland's lava dome. On 8 March AVO noted that the lava dome had remained unchanged since 6 February, and the last thermal anomalies were observed on 26 February. Although cloud cover often prevents observations of the dome, clear views between 1 and 5 March verified no changes. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Descabezado Grande  | Chile  | 35.58°S, 70.75°W  | Elevation 3953 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-28 February seismicity increased at Descabezado Grande, in the Laguna del Maule volcanic complex area. There were 127 earthquakes detected, with magnitudes 1.7 or less, mostly comprised of volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The seismic swarms were associated with deformation and considered to be at a high level. On 8 March the Alert Level was raised to Yellow.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Dieng Volcanic Complex  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.2°S, 109.879°E  | Elevation 2565 m

CVGHM reported that during 7-11 March instruments monitoring the Dieng Volcanic Complex detected carbon dioxide plumes from Timbang Crater drifting 50-200 m S; the concentration increased during 9-10 March. A strong sulfur odor was also reported, along with dead animals near the crater on 7 March. Observers noted white plumes rising from the crater that were diffuse during 7-8 March and dense during 9-10 March. Because of the increase of carbon dioxide emissions, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500 m radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that during 5-6 March a new episode of lava fountaining occurred at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 5 March an explosion from the vent in the W part of NSEC was detected at 1854 and ejected incandescent bombs several tens of meters above the crater rim. This explosion was followed by similar ones, initially separated by intervals of 15-20 minutes, but then gradually became more frequent. As the evening went on, the activity at NSEC progressively intensified; likewise, the volcanic tremor amplitude started to rise. Around 0012 on 6 March, lava started to flow from the saddle between the two SEC cones; a few minutes later, an eruptive fissure with several vents opened in the lower portion of the saddle. Lava jets became continuous around 0017, forming a fountain that rose 200-300 m above the crater rim. Various vents were active within the NSEC, in the saddle area, and at the base of the saddle, from where a voluminous lava flow expanded S and SE. Around 0100 this lava flow had reached the area of Belvedere station. Lava also flowed through the breach in the SE rim of NSEC.

For the next 30 minutes, lava fountaining continued with jets rising 600 to 800 m above the crater. An eruption column heavily laden with pyroclastic material rose several kilometers above the summit and drifted NE. Deposition was intense on the upper NE flank of Etna, covering the area of the Valle del Leone, Pizzi Deneri, and Serra delle Concazze with incandescent bombs and scoriae. Further downslope, at Linguaglossa, scoria with diameters of several centimeters fell, and ash and lapilli fall was also observed at Piedimonte Etneo, Fiumefreddo, Taormina, and other towns along the Messinian Ionian coast.

Just after 0100, and within a few minutes, explosive activity nearly ceased, with only a few weak Strombolian explosions. During the same time, however, an eruptive vent opened on the lower E flank of the NSEC cone, which produced vigorous spattering and a well-fed lava flow that advanced SE. This activity continued at a slowly decreasing rate for a few days and ceased altogether on 9 March.

At the Voragine, Strombolian activity continued after the 5-6 March paroxysm at NSEC, but then alternated with short episodes of intense Strombolian activity and nearly totally quiet intervals. These oscillations were reflected in the volcanic tremor amplitude, which during the 24 hours following the paroxysmal episode at the NSEC showed about twenty small peaks.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-8 March rumbling noises from Fuego were reported and incandescent material was ejected 50-100 m above the crater. Avalanches traveled SSW down the Ceniza drainage during 6-7 March. Explosions during 8-11 March produced ash plumes that rose up to 450 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, S, SE, and E. During 11-12 March ash plumes drifted 10 km and produced ashfall in the Panimache villages (8 km SW) and Morelia (9 km SW). Lava flows were also observed.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 8-12 March diffuse white plumes rose from Pacaya and drifted N, E, S, and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Tangkubanparahu  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 6.77°S, 107.6°E  | Elevation 2084 m

According to news articles, an eruption from Tangkubanparahu on 4 March produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater. An eight-minute-long eruption at 0559 on 7 March ejected ash 30 m above Ratu Crater.

Source: The Jakarta Post



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that during 2-12 March seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at Tungurahua were both moderate to high. Over 100 earthquakes were detected daily; 157 high-frequency tremors were recorded on 3 March and 233 long-period events were recorded on 6 March. Deformation measurements indicated that the rising magma body was small and concentrated beneath the NW flank.

Although cloud cover often prevented visual observations during 6-12 March, ash emissions were observed almost daily. On 6 March a steam plume with low ash content rose 1.5 km above the crater. Roaring was heard at night during 6-7 March, and ashfall was reported in Palitahua (S), El Manzano (8 km SW), Penipe (15 km SW), and Choglountus (SW). Ash plumes rose 1 km above the crater on 7 March and 2 km the next day, drifting W. During 8-12 March Strombolian activity ejected incandescent blocks that rolled at most 500 m down the flanks. Ash plumes drifted S, SW, and W. Ashfall during 10-11 March was reported in El Manzano and Choglountus. On 11 March ashfall was also reported in Pillate (8 km W).

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that nine explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 4-8 March, and ejected tephra fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 6-12 March generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. Pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-4.6 km (4,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 7-11 March and drifted S and E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ambae  | Vanuatu  | 15.389°S, 167.835°E  | Elevation 1496 m

According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, a report from 6 March stated that the minor activity at Aoba that began in December 2012 was likely continuing. Satellite images acquired on 3 and 26 February detected substantial sulfur dioxide emissions. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4).

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 8-9 March ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that steam-and-gas emissions from Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, were detected in satellite images on 5 March; cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano on other days during 4-11 March.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Karymsky was detected during 28 February-7 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 6-12 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively and informally called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 3.5 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a, but possibly stalled at the end of the week. Lava flows were active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations. A second lava-flow branch was active near the coast and a third branch was active near the base of the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 28 February-7 March moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing summit incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that on 1 March Manam's Main and Southern Craters emitted small amounts of diffuse white vapor. The craters were either partially or totally obscured by meteorological cloud cover. On 4 and 7 March intermittent gray ash plumes rose 300 m, above the cloud cover.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-12 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-75 km E and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 5-12 March seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained ash on most days. On 7 March seismicity increased, and incandescent tephra was ejected up to 1 km above the crater and fell on the NE flanks. An eruption plume rose 1.5 km above the crater; ashfall was reported in Puebla (50 km to the E). Activity decreased later that day. On 10 March incandescent tephra was ejected 100 m above the crater and again fell on the NE flanks, 400 m away from the crater. The next day incandescent tephra ejected from the crater fell back into the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that ash emissions increased at Rabaul on 3 March and were mainly brownish. Emissions again increased the next day, occurring almost every minute. Billowing brown ash clouds slowly rose from the crater then quickly dispersed to the SE. The emissions decreased to about every hour on 7 March.

Seismicity was very high during 4-6 March and then declined in the evening of 7 March. Three regional earthquakes felt during this period ranged in magnitude from 5.1-5.5, and occurred SSE from Rabaul offshore outside the Wide Bay area at depths ranging between 50 and 60 km. They were felt in Rabaul town with intensities of III-IV. Emissions were absent during 8-11 March.

Activity resumed on 12 March at 1108. An explosion ejected tephra and a gray-to-black billowing ash plume rose 300 m and drifted SE. The forcefulness and color lessened over at least the next 40 minutes; ash plumes rose 100 m, but were carried to 1 km with the wind. Seismicity remained low.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Ruapehu  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.28°S, 175.57°E  | Elevation 2797 m

On 12 March, GeoNet reported that the Volcanic Alert Level for Ruapehu remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green based on the analysis of monitoring data and the lack of recent seismic activity.

Source: GeoNet



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-11 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 700-900 m and drifted S, SE, and E. Ashfall was reported in Calahuaché, El Faro (SW flank), and San José Patzulin (SW flank). Avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled down the flanks. On 8 March avalanches from the NE part of the lava dome generated ashfall on the volcano. During 11-12 March four lava flows were active, on the SW, S, SE, and E flanks, which sometimes produced avalanches that generated pyroclastic flows. The number of explosions ranged from 40 to 60 per day, often producing ash plumes that rose 0.5-1 km above the complex.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 28 February-7 March a viscous lava flow effused on the E flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. A single explosion on 4 March produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Collapses of hot material on 6 March generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 28 February-7 March that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the fissure. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A very large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Nyiragongo Talang
Chaiten Karkar Okataina Tambora
Chiginagak Karthala Okmok Tanaga
Chikurachki Karymsky Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirpoi Kelimutu Pagan Telica
Cleveland Kelut Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Colima Kerinci Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Colo Ketoi Panarea Three Sisters
Concepcion Kharimkotan Papandayan Tinakula
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Parker Tofua
Cotopaxi Kikai Pavlof Tokachidake
Cuicocha Kilauea Peuet Sague Tolbachik
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Dabbahu Kizimen Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Poas Tungurahua
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
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Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)