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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 3 April-9 April 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 3 April-9 April 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia) New
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) New
Lascar Chile New
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Tambora Sumbawa Island (Indonesia) New
Yasur Vanuatu New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Paluweh Indonesia Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]  | Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia)  | 45.012°N, 147.871°E  | Elevation 1158 m

SVERT reported that on 3 April at 0755 ash from Grozny Group fell in Kurilsk (23 km N) and Kitovy, producing deposits 2-3 mm thick. Cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano. The next day satellite images showed an ash plume that rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 April an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km WNW. According to a news article, pahoehoe lava flows traveled 150 m and rock avalanches traveled 2 km down the flanks on that same day.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Lascar  | Chile  | 23.37°S, 67.73°W  | Elevation 5592 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during March a web camera monitoring Láscar recorded white gas plumes rising 600 m above the crater. At night during 2-4 April incandescence from the crater was observed. On 3 April increased emissions from the crater fluctuated from white to gray, indicating possible ash. Plumes rose 320 m and drifted SE. Seismicity remained at normal levels during the increased emissions. On 5 April the Alert Level was raised to Yellow.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Raung  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.119°S, 114.056°E  | Elevation 3260 m

CVGHM reported that during March white plumes rose at most 400 m above Raung. Seismicity decreased significantly on 25 March, and tremor was absent starting in April. On 5 April the Alert level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.8-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Tambora  | Sumbawa Island (Indonesia)  | 8.25°S, 118°E  | Elevation 2850 m

Based on visual observations and seismic data, CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Tambora to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Yasur  | Vanuatu  | 19.532°S, 169.447°E  | Elevation 361 m

On 7 April, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that explosive activity from Yasur had increased beginning on 2 April; explosions had become stronger and more frequent. Bombs fell around the summit area, the tourist walk, and the parking area. Moderate ash venting occurred on 2, 4, and 5 April, and possibly continued. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 1-5 April three explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra at most 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. Based on a pilot report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume drifted N on 4 April.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 April ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km SW and WSW. On 9 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 75 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 5-7 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km SW, WSW, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 6 April; cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano on other days during 1-8 April.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 3 April, after almost 18 days of relative quiet, the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) of Etna produced its ninth episode of lava fountaining. Activity had increased on 2 April when small grayish-brown puffs rose from NSEC. Cloud cover prevented further visual observations through the following night; however, sporadic glow suggested Strombolian activity. On the morning of 3 April, the volcanic tremor amplitude slowly increased and was accompanied by numerous explosion signals. Field observations revealed that at 1330 vigorous Strombolian activity was occurring at one or two NSEC vents, with jets of pyroclastic material rising up to a few tens of meters above the crater rim. The activity progressively intensified between 1400 and 1430, with frequent, powerful Strombolian explosions often generating loud bangs and launching great quantities of incandescent bombs (with diameters of many meters) onto the flanks of the cone. Shortly after 1435, ash emission started from the saddle vent (SV), followed a few minutes later by Strombolian explosions from the same vent. At 1450, a continuous jet of incandescent lava fountained up to 100 m, whereas the vents within NSEC continued to produce powerful loud explosions. At around 1505 a lava flow moved through the deep breach in the SE rim of NSEC and then traveled over the W rim of the Valle del Bove. During the same time interval, lava emissions started from SV, feeding a flow that went S.

Since 1430 the eruptive plume drifted SE and contained modest amounts of volcanic ash. At around 1540 ash emissions progressively increased and the volcanic tremor amplitude showed a rapid rise. Between 1540 and 1615 low lava fountaining continued from SV, whereas the vents within NSEC emitted intermittent, pulsating lava fountains. The incandescent jets from the vents within NSEC rose up to 400 m above the crater rim. At 1615, lava fountaining at SV intensified, with jets rising 400-500 m high. Explosions from the vents within NSEC continued, producing loud detonations every 1-2 seconds.

Lava fountaining significantly decreased between 1625 and 1628 when a new eruptive vent (NV) opened a few tens of meters to the W of SV, on the E slope of the old SEC cone, and emitted grayish-brown ash. A dense cloud of pyroclastic material emitted by NSEC vents and SV rose about 2 km high and drifted SE. Fallout of pyroclastic material affected almost the same area that had already been subjected to the heavy shower of lapilli on 16 March: Zafferana Etnea and Santa Venerina on the SE flank, and the N part of Acireale plus a number of smaller villages to the N at the S margin of Giarre, in the Ionian area. The deposit was thinner than that of 16 March, and the dimensions of the lapilli were notably smaller.

Between 1630 and 1640, the eruptive activity reached a new peak of intensity with sustained lava fountains from SV and powerful explosions from the vents within the NSEC. At 1637 a thermal surveillance camera recorded a pyroclastic flow from the NE flank of the NSEC cone. Two lava flows emerged from the same area and traveled toward the Valle del Bove.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that satellite data showed a thermal anomaly on Karymsky on 1 and 3 April. Technical problems prevented seismic data collection. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 3-9 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.9 km NE over older flows. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 29 March-5 April moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Based on information from Yelizovo Airport (UHPP) and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 4 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

Based on both CVGHM and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 April an eruption from Lokon-Empung produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 3-3.4 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. On 8 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km SE and W. During 6-7 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W and WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

On 4 April Instituto Geofísico de Perú (IGP) reported that volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at Sabancaya dominated the seismic signals although long-period (LP) events continued to be detected.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 29 March-5 April a viscous lava flow effused on the E flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. An explosion on 5 April observed by video generated an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 5.5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 29 March-5 April that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the fissure. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A very large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Nyiragongo Talang
Chaiten Karkar Okataina Tambora
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Chikurachki Karymsky Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
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Chirinkotan Kavachi Pacaya Tara, Batu
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Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)