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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 10 July-16 July 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 10 July-16 July 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Kelimutu Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Ubinas Peru New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Veniaminof United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Kelimutu  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.77°S, 121.82°E  | Elevation 1639 m

CVGHM reported that on 6, 10, and 12 June, and during 14 June-9 July, the color of the water in Kelimutu’s Crater II (Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai Crater) was bluish white. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the lake’s surface and in some areas the water appeared or sounded like it was boiling. A sulfur odor was also reported. The water in Crater I (Tiwu Ata Polo) was light green and churned, and the water in Crater III (Tiwu Ata Mbupu) was mossy green.

During 22-29 June sulfur dioxide concentrations from Crater II were occasionally detected at 2.8 ppm, when the wind blew the gas towards the sensor. CVGHM noted that plumes rising from the lakes became lower and barely visible during 3 June-9 July, and that the “rustling sound” of water from near the dividing wall of craters I and II gradually faded away. Based on visual observations, seismicity, and gas emissions, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 July.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that scientists aboard an overflight of Popocatépetl on 10 July confirmed the presence of a new lava dome that was 250 m wide and 20 m thick. During 10-16 July seismicity indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 9-11 July. Plumes with small amounts of ash were observed at 1556 and 1736 on 10 July, and an explosion was detected at 2259. Medium-sized explosions at 1949 on 11 July, and at 0137 and 0300 on 12 July, ejected incandescent tephra 2 km onto the E flank and 1 km onto the N flank. According to a news article, on 12 July a flight into and out of México City’s (65 km NW) international airport was canceled and operations at a small airport in Puebla (~50 km to the E) were suspended.

Early on 13 July a gas-and-ash plume was observed drifting NE. During 13-14 July steam, gas, and ash emissions rose from the SE part of the crater, some incandescence from the crater was observed, and a dense steam-and-gas plume was noted. On 15 July a plume of steam, gas, and ash rose 1 km and drifted W. During an overflight later that day scientists observed a 200-m-wide and 20-to-30 m deep crater where the lava dome had been; explosions during the previous few days had destroyed the dome. At 0036 on 16 July a steam-and-gas plume containing minor amounts of ash rose from the crater. Incandescence emanating from the crater was also observed early that day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 5-12 July a viscous lava flow effused on the N flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Ash plumes as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. were observed during 5-6 July. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that seismic activity at Tungurahua was at low levels during 10-11 July, increased to moderate levels on 12 July, and increased again to moderate-to-high levels on 13 July; the number and type of events gradually and constantly increased. Cloud cover prevented visual observations of the crater. A total of 266 long-period events were recorded from 1500 on 13 July through the time of a large explosion at 0647 on 14 July, which was heard in areas as far as Guayaquil (about 180 km SW).

At 0651 an ash plume generated by the explosion rose 5.1 km above the crater and several significant pyroclastic flows descended the Achupashal ravine (NW). Continuous tremor was detected until 0840, and then seismicity dramatically decreased. At 0842 the plume rose to 8.3 km above the crater and drifted N, W, and S. At 0930 the plume drifted N and was observed drifting over the E parts of Quito (130 km N). Heavy amounts of ash and tephra fell in areas near the volcano including Bilbao (W, 4 cm diameter), Chacauco (NW, 5 cm diameter), Cotaló (8 km NW), Cahuají (8 km SW), Choglontus (SW), El Manzano (8 km SW), Puela (8 km SW), and Penipe (15 km SW); thinner deposits were reported in towns including Pelileo (8 km N), Ambato (31 km N), Cevallos (23 km NW), Colta (45 km SW), Guanujo (65 km WSW), and Guaranda (65 km WSW), and in the cantons of Guano (30 km SW), Valencia, Empalme, Buena Fé, and areas in the province of Manabi (180 km NW). According to news articles, over 200 people were evacuated from Cusua, Chacauco, and Juive.

On 15 July steam plumes were observed rising from the crater during times of better visibility. Long-period earthquakes and tremor were detected during 15-16 July. Ashfall was reported in El Manzano on 16 July; cloud cover continued to prevent observations of the crater.

Sources: Associated Press, Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that, although a pilot reported an ash plume from Ubinas rising to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W on [11 July], there was no ash detected in clear satellite images.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 1-14 July. Emissions from the summit crater consisted of white vapor during 1-7 July, and then changed to occasionally sub-continuous, light gray ash clouds during 8 and 11-14 July. Ash clouds changed to gray-brown on 14 July.

Seismic activity was low from 1 July through the early part of 13 July. RSAM increased from about 0700 on 14 July onwards with the emergence of continuous volcanic tremors until it reached a peak of 700 just after 0300 on 15 July. RVO noted that the last significant volcanic tremors at Ulawun were recorded in May and June 2012.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that 17 explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 8-15 July; incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed at night. Explosions during 10-11 July generated ash plumes that rose 3-3.4 km above the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 July explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.6 km (5,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, ENE, and E. Ash was detected in satellite images. During 10 and 14-15 July pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that on 14 July an ash plume from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 40 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

Based on analysis of satellite images, SVERT reported that weak steam-and-gas emissions from Chirinkotan were observed on 12 July and a thermal anomaly was detected during 12-13 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 14 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 10-16 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 5-12 July moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 5 and 9 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that the increased activity at Manam noted during 17-18 June continued on 19 June, and then declined on 20 June. On 19 June diffuse dark gray ash plumes that rose 200 m above the summit crater were accompanied by deep, loud explosive and booming noises occurring at short intervals. Very loud explosions accompanied by shock waves were heard at much longer intervals. Observers noted ejected incandescent lava fragments at night.

Decreased activity that started on 20 June carried through 30 June, and was characterized by diffuse ash emissions at the beginning of the period changing to diffuse white vapor emissions towards the end. Diffuse gray emissions rose from Main Crater during 19-22 June; explosion and booming noises were reported during 19-20 June. Seismicity was low. Activity at Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-14 July; both craters emitted white vapor.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 8-14 July gas-and-steam plumes rose 600 m above Nevado del Ruiz’s crater and drifted NW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were significant. Seismicity was dominated by volcano-tectonic signals. The earthquakes were located NE, S, and SW of Arenas Crater; the largest was a M (local) 2.1 located SW of Arenas Crater at a depth of 3.4 km. Shallow seismicity associated with fluid movement occurred S and SE of the crater. During 11-12 July continuous volcanic tremor associated with emissions was detected; ashfall was reported in Los Nevados Natural Park and in some parts of Manizales (30 km NW). The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 16 June-14 July white-to-light-gray plumes sometimes containing fine ash rose at most 2 km from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted NW and SE. Roaring and rumbling noises also continued, and seismicity was low. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) during 16-30 June. The lava dome on the crater floor of Tavurvur continued to glow; on 26 June and 4 July observers near the dome noted brief incandescence at the vent associated with strong and rapid venting. Explosions during 10-14 July generated dense gray ash clouds that drifted NW, causing ashfall between Namanula Hill (3 km W) and Malaguna No.1 (NW), and Pilapila and Tavui Point.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that during 10-16 July seismic activity at Reventador was high; weather conditions mostly prevented visual observations of the crater. During partially clear views on 13 July, observers noted a new lava flow on the S flank. At 1500 on 15 July continuous tremor was detected, which intensified at 2000, and then decreased at midnight. Intense Strombolian activity during this time was characterized by variable-magnitude explosions and roaring. Explosions generated blocks that rolled down the flanks. Incandescence from the lava flow on the S flank was observed.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 5-12 July that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the S fissure and weak gas-and-steam plumes were observed. A large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

AVO reported that the ongoing low-level eruption of Veniaminof, characterized by lava effusion and emission of minor amounts of ash and steam, continued during 10-16 July, indicated by nearly continuous volcanic tremor and occasional small explosions detected by the seismic network. Satellite images showed elevated surface temperatures at the cinder cone inside the caldera consistent with lava effusion. Images also showed that most of the lava flows traveled S of the cone a short distance (hundreds of meters). The web camera in Perryville (32 km SSE) recorded very weak emissions of vapor, possibly containing minor amounts of ash, within the caldera during 9-10 July; incandescence from the cone was visible during 10-11 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)