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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 17 July-23 July 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 17 July-23 July 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Turrialba Costa Rica New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Veniaminof United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kegunungapian (BPPTK) reported that at 0415 on 22 July a booming sound from Merapi was followed by a rising plume observed from multiple observation posts. Ashfall was reported in areas S, including Kaliurang and Balerante. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale from 0-4).

According to news articles, the eruption lasted until about 0530, and generated a dense black plume that rose 1 km. A booming sound was heard 30 km away. Ashfall affected the district of Deles, Tlogowatu, Kemalang, Balerante, Klaten, and Jawa Tengah. Hundreds of residents evacuated but returned to their homes later that day.

Sources: Associated Press, Bernama, Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kegunungapian (BPPTK)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 17-23 July seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed. On 17 July an explosion was detected at 1516. During a period of clear weather on 19 July observers noted steam-and-gas plumes drifting W. An explosion at 1533 generated a steam, gas, and ash plume that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted NW. Another explosion was detected at 2257. On 20 July steam-and-gas plumes rose 1 km and drifted SW; steam, gas, and ash emissions rose 1.2 km and drifted WSW. Steam-and-gas plumes were bluish on 21 July; the plumes rose 500 m and drifted NW. An explosion at 0343 on 23 July generated an ash plume that rose 1.1 km and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 12-19 July a viscous lava flow effused on the N flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Based on notices from Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. KVERT noted that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 15, 17, and 18 July; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that at night during 16-17 July observers noted incandescent blocks falling onto Tungurahua's flanks. Cloud cover often prevented observations. An explosion was heard in Ambato (31 km N) on 16 July. Explosions were detected on 17 July, and white ashfall was reported in Choglontus (SW). Steam-and-ash plumes were observed rising 1.5 km and drifting W. During 18-19 July Strombolian activity ejected blocks that rolled 500 m down the flanks. Ash fell in Choglontus. Seismicity remained high during 17-19 July; 18-33 long-period earthquakes, 53-82 tremors indicting emissions, and 3-6 explosions were recorded per day.

On 19 July an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW. The geodetic monitoring system indicated an inflationary trend on the N flank and deflation SW of the volcano, indicating the presence of a magma body about 2 km below the crater. During 19-20 July ashfall was reported in Choglontus and El Manzano (8 km SW). On 20 July 127 long-period earthquakes, 71 tremors indicting emissions, and 43 explosions were detected.

Seismicity again increased on 21 July; 220 long-period earthquakes, three periods of tremor indicating emissions, and 15 explosions were detected. The three periods of tremor were characterized by two 1-hour-long sessions and a third period lasting at least eight hours. Explosions vibrated nearby structures, and ejected blocks onto the upper parts of the flanks. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, and produced ashfall in Cevallos (23 km NW), Tisaleo (29 km NW), Mapayacu (SW), Choglontus, and El Manzano. Strombolian activity overnight during 21-22 July ejected blocks that rolled 500 m down the flanks. Strong explosions again vibrated structures, and ash emissions rose 1 km. Ashfall was noted in El Manzano, Pillate, Chacuaco and Cahuaji. On 23 July ash plumes rose 1.5 km and drifted WSW. Strombolian activity was observed overnight and roaring was heard. Ashfall was reported in Cahuají and Choglontus. Seimscity decreased but still remained high during 22-23 July; 22-40 long-period earthquakes, 7-12 tremors indicting emissions, and 4-9 explosions were detected per day.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported significant seismic activity at Turrialba starting on 14 July. Low-frequency signals indicating fluid movement grew from an average of less than 200 events per day to over 600 events on 14 July, reaching a peak of activity with over 1,000 events on 15 July. Low-frequency tremor was detected during 18-19 July. Elevated seismicity remained at least through the report posting on 20 July. No morphological changes at the surface were observed.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 15-21 July. Emissions from the summit crater were light gray during 15-16 July, and then changed to white vapor during 17-21 July. RSAM from volcanic tremors had increased on 14 July and reached a peak of 700 just after 0300 on 15 July. RSAM then decreased to 80 on 21 July, which also marked the cessation of volcanic tremors.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that five explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 16-19 July, and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km. A large plume rose 3.5 km above the crater on 16 July. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 18-19 July. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-21 July explosions generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, SE, and S. Ash was sometimes detected in satellite images. On 19 July a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

Based on analysis of satellite images, SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly and possible weak steam-and-gas emissions from Chirinkotan were observed on 16 and 18 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 17-23 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. On 19 July several pieces of the pit wall fell into the lake.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow branches, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.6 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry at a location E and outside of the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 12-19 July moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 15-18 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that activity at Manam’s Main and Southern craters was low. White vapor plumes were observed rising from both craters when weather conditions were clear.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 15-21 July low-level activity consisted of discrete emissions of pale gray ash plumes occurring at short intervals. Some emissions were explosive and generated plumes that rose 2 km above the crater. Plumes drifted E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW, and deposited minor amounts of ash in areas downwind mainly between Nodup and Rapolo (with Rabaul Town, 3-5 km NW, in between), and to a lesser extent in the Vulcan area. Roaring and rumbling noises also continued, often in conjunction with explosions.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that during 17-19 July seismic activity at Reventador remained high; at times periods of increased seismicity were followed by relatively quiet episodes. The seismic network recorded long-period signals, rockfalls, explosions, and emissions. Based on reports from observers at camp San Rafael, cloud cover often prevented visual observations, although on 18 July a new lava flow on the E flank was observed with a video camera, and a gas-and-ash plume was observed rising 1 km. During 21-22 July gas plumes with low ash content rose to low heights.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 12-19 July that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the S fissure and weak gas-and-steam plumes were observed. A large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

AVO reported that the ongoing low-level eruption of Veniaminof, characterized by lava effusion and emission of minor amounts of ash and steam, continued during 17-23 July, indicated by nearly continuous volcanic tremor and occasional small explosions detected by the seismic network. On most days satellite images showed elevated surface temperatures at the cinder cone inside the caldera consistent with lava effusion. The web camera in Perryville (32 km SSE) recorded nighttime incandescence and low-level ash-and-steam plumes during 22-23 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Brava Ioto Nabro Stromboli
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Calbuco Jackson Segment Nightingale Island Sundoro
Callaqui Kaba Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Cameroon Kadovar Nisyros Suwanosejima
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Novarupta Taal
Cayambe Kanaga NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Cereme Kanlaon Nyamuragira Takawangha
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Nyiragongo Talang
Chaiten Karkar Okataina Tambora
Chiginagak Karthala Okmok Tanaga
Chikurachki Karymsky Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirpoi Kelimutu Pagan Telica
Cleveland Kelut Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Colima Kerinci Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Colo Ketoi Panarea Three Sisters
Concepcion Kharimkotan Papandayan Tinakula
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Parker Tofua
Cotopaxi Kikai Pavlof Tokachidake
Cuicocha Kilauea Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cumbal Kirishimayama Pinatubo Toliman
Dabbahu Kizimen Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Poas Tungurahua
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Dukono Koryaksky Rabaul Ulawun
Ebeko Krakatau Ranakah Unknown Source
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Ekarma Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
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Erebus Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erta Ale Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Etna Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
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Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)