Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 9 April-15 April 2014.


















 Activity for the week of 9 April-15 April 2014

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Reventador Ecuador New
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Ubinas Peru New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
San Cristobal Nicaragua Ongoing
San Miguel El Salvador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 8-15 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. On 9 April some of the larger emissions were accompanied by crater incandescence. A steam-and-gas plume containing small amounts of ash rose 1-1.1 km above the crater and drifted E. Explosions on 10, 12, and 13 April ejected incandescent material 100 m from the crater; ejecta on 12 April landed on the E flank. Nighttime incandescence was visible during 10-15 April. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that activity at Reventador remained high on 9-15 April; numerous explosions were detected each day. Steam-and-ash plumes rose less than 1 km above the crater and drifted W during 9-10 April. Lava flows down the SW flank were reported on 9 and 11 April. Clouds obscured views during 12-15 April.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures over Shishaldin's summit area were detected in satellite images on most days during 9-15 April; cloud cover occasionally prevented observations. Ground-coupled air waves from small explosions detected by the seismic network decreased during 9-10 April. Minor ash deposits were observed several hundred meters down flanks. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that on 9 April incandescent blocks ejected by Strombolian activity at Tungurahua rolled down the flanks as far as 3 km. An ash plume rose 3 km above the crater and drifted SW, W and NW. Minor ashfall was reported in Cahuaji, Choglontus (SW), and El Manzano (8 km SW). On 10 April an emission observed during a break in cloud cover rose 500 m and drifted W. Ash fell in Quero (20 km NW), Santa Anita, Calera, and El Manzano. Later that day a lava flow on the upper W flank, in the Mandur drainage, was estimated to be 2 km long, 100 m wide, and 15 m thick. On 11 April ash plumes drifted NW, and ashfall was reported in Quero and Tisaleo. The next day ash plumes rose 3 km and drifted W. Ejected blocks from Strombolian activity traveled 1 km down the flanks. A special bulletin released by IG on 14 April reported several small to moderate explosions. A significant explosion at 0831 produced an infrasound signal that was 150 decibels 5.5 km away. Unconfirmed reports indicated that windows in Chacauco and Cusúa shattered. The shock wave was also detected in other locations including Ambato and Riobamba. An ash plume rose 5 km. On 15 April plumes with low ash content rose 3 km and drifted W. Ash fell in Runtún and Mocha. A lahar descended the Achupashal drainage, causing a temporary halt to traffic traveling on the Baños- Penipe highway.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 9-14 April seismicity at Ubinas remained high. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.3-2.2 km above the crater and drifted mostly E, SE, and S. Ashfall was reported in Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Huatagua (14 km SE), Anascapa (11 km SE), Tonohaya (7 km SSE), San Miguel (10 km SE), Sacuaya, Querapi (4 km S), San Juan de Tarucani, Escacha, Ichuña, Yungas, and Chojata. On 13 April a significant explosion occurred that possibly removed the body of recently erupted lava on the crater floor; incandescent tephra was ejected from the crater. On 14 April an explosion ejected incandescent tephra from the crater that was deposited on the W flank.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 7-11 April two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected during the night of 10 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 and 12 April plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 10 April.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

SVERT reported that satellite images of Chirinkotan showed gas-and-steam emissions on 9 April drifting more than 50 km SE. Cloud cover obscured views during 10-15 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that on 13 April satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected steam-and-gas emissions. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 9-15 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-13 and 15 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-280 km SE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 April seismic activity at Fuego increased, along with the number and magnitude of explosions. Ash plumes rose 850 m above the crater and drifted 10 km W and SW. Explosions were heard in areas up to 15 km away and shock waves were detected 8 km away. At night incandescent blocks in the Santa Teresa (S), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages were noted. During 10-11 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m and drifted 8-10 km W and SW, and caused structures to vibrate in local towns. In a special report from 11 April INSIVUMEH noted that activity had increased. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 12 km W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Panimaché (8 km SW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Avalanches descended the Trinity drainage. Activity continued during 13-14 April though cloud cover prevented visual observations; explosions generated shock waves, and sounds resembling avalanches on the S and SW flanks were reported. During 14-15 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose 760 m and drifted 10 km W and SW. Shock waves were detected in areas within 10 km and explosions were heard within 15 km. At night incandescent blocks in the Santa Teresa (S), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages were again noted.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that Vulcanian and Strombolian activity continued at Karymsky during 4-11 April. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes drifted 100 km E on 4 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 9-15 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone (during most of the reporting period). The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 9 April showed the farthest point of activity was 8.3 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 April an explosion from Pacaya generated an ash plume that rose 50 m and drifted 1 km SSE. During 9-11 and 13-15 April white plumes from Mackenney Crater drifted S and N.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  San Cristobal  | Nicaragua  | 12.702°N, 87.004°W  | Elevation 1745 m

Based on analysis of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 April a gas plume from San Cristóbal that possibly contained small amounts of ash drifted 20 km W. A thermal anomaly was present in short-wave infrared satellite images. Periods of elevated seismicity were also detected.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  San Miguel  | El Salvador  | 13.434°N, 88.269°W  | Elevation 2130 m

According to SNET, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that on 12 April moderate to strong gas plumes from San Miguel rose from the crater and drifted SW. The most robust plume occurred at 1607 and rose 400 m. Images recorded by a webcam showed that the plumes had dark tones, suggesting small amounts of ash.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-11 and 14-15 April explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-800 m and drifted 8-10 km. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW), La Florida (5 km S), Rosario, and other areas in Palajunoj (18 km SSW). Avalanches from lava flows descended the flanks during 10-11 and 13-14 April.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 4-11 April lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s SE flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

Search by Volcano
Agung Fourpeaked Little Sitkin San Cristobal
Ahyi Fuego Llaima San Miguel
Aira Fujisan Loihi San Vicente
Akan Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung Sangay
Alaid Galeras Lopevi Sangeang Api
Alu-Dalafilla Galunggung Machin Santa Ana
Ambae Gamalama Makian Santa Maria
Ambang Gamkonora Makushin Sarigan
Ambrym Gaua Maly Semyachik Sarychev Peak
Anatahan Gorely Manam Saunders
Antuco Great Sitkin Manda Hararo Semeru
Apoyeque Grimsvotn Marapi Semisopochnoi
Arenal Guagua Pichincha Maroa Seulawah Agam
Asamayama Guallatiri Martin Sheveluch
Askja Guntur Masaya Shishaldin
Asosan Hachijojima Mauna Loa Simbo
Augustine Hakoneyama Mayon Sinabung
Avachinsky Heard McDonald Islands Sinarka
Awu Hekla Melimoyu Siple
Axial Seamount Hierro Merapi Sirung
Azul, Cerro Hokkaido-Komagatake Metis Shoal Slamet
Azumayama Home Reef Misti, El Soputan
Bagana Hood Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Balbi Hudson, Cerro Momotombo Sotara
Bamus Huila, Nevado del Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ibu Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Ijen Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliamna Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Ioto Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Iya Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kaba Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kadovar NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raung Villarrica
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Reventador White Island
Epi Kverkfjoll Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erebus Lamington Rinjani Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
Etna Langila Rotorua Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fonualei Lewotobi Sakar
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
Search by Date
Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.





 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement


RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)