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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

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You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 20 August-26 August 2014.


















 Activity for the week of 20 August-26 August 2014

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bardarbunga Iceland New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Kusatsu-Shiranesan Honshu (Japan) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
San Miguel El Salvador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.633°N, 17.516°W  | Elevation 2000 m

During 20-26 August the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing high rates of seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. Global Postioning System and seismic data indicated that an intrusive dike had increased from 25 to 40 km in length E, NE, and N of the volcano over the past week. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjujökull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

During 20-26 August JMA reported 17 explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano that were accompanied by volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor, and which ejected ballistics 500-800 m away. On 20-24 August clear incandescence was visible using high-sensitivity camera at night. On 20-26 August the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions with plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and N, though volcanic ash could not be identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

During 25-26 August the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes at Bagana that rose 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-120 km W and WNW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume from Batu Tara on 26 June that drifted 35-55 km NW and W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20-21 August a low-level plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km NW and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

During 20-26 August, INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions at Fuego expelled blocks up to 800 m above the rim. On most days white plumes rose 200-600 m above the crater and drifted SW and W and on 25 August the white plume rose to 4.2 km (13,800 ft) above the crater. Ash plumes rose 4.1-4.6 km (13,500-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10-15 km NE, W, S and SW. Ashfall was reported in villages Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Panimaché II, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Hagia Sophia. On most days rumbling was heard around the volcano and rattled structures near the volcano on 24 August. On 21 and 25 August were jet engine like sounds lasting 1-4 minutes. Weak to moderate avalanches of blocks were channeled into the canyons Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa and Honda.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 20-26 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. On 23 August part of the deep inner ledge surrounding the lava lake collapsed, disrupting the lava lake surface for a short time.

During 20-26 August glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in Pu`u `O`o's crater floor and on 20-21 August glow was visible at skylights along the June 27th flow lava tube. On 22 August observations during a helicopter flight showed the June 27th flow had poured into a deep, large crack of Kilauea’s east rift zone and produced a line of steaming that advanced eastward. On 25 August an overflight confirmed that lava in the crack had returned to the surface, creating a small, isolated pad of lava. On 26 August the farthest portion of this new pad of lava was about 11.4 km from the vent on Pu`u `O`o and about 3.1 km from the eastern boundary of the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve. A separate branch of the June 27th flow continued to advance into a different section of forest northeast of Pu`u `O`o and was 7.3 km from the vent on 25 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

JMA reported that during 20-26 August there were few episodes of volcanic tremor and volcanic earthquakes, with no explosions at Kuchinoerabujima. On most days a white plume rose 20-400m above the crater rim. The Alert Level for Kuchinoerabujima remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Kusatsu-Shiranesan  | Honshu (Japan)  | 36.618°N, 138.528°E  | Elevation 2165 m

On 20-22 August JMA reported volcanic earthquakes continuing at Kusatsu-Shiranesan’s crater, although decreased from early August and tremor was absent. The Alert Level remains at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

During 20-26 August PHIVOLCS reported no incandescence at Mayon, despite the emergence of a summit dome, slight ground deformation, and increased volcanic gas emission. On most days seismic instruments recorded a few rock falls and sparse earthquakes. During 20-25 August observers noted moderate emission of white steam plumes that drifted SW, WSW, NE, ENE, and SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-26 August white and blueish white fumarolic plumes rose 50-150 m above Mackenney Crater at Pacaya and drifted 500-800 m S and SW. On 25 August small bursts of gray ash rose 300-700 m above the crater and drifted S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 20-26 August steam-and-gas emissions with minor ash rose 100-800 m above Popocatépetl’s crater and drifted NW and W. On 25-26 August the emissions had a low intensity explosive component. On most nights incandescence was observed, increasing with larger emissions. On 23 August slight amounts of ash were reported northwest of the volcano in the communities of Amecameca, Ozumba, and Tlalmanalco. On most days there was only partial visibility due to cloud cover, and on 25-26 August heavy cloud cover was reported. On 24 August the Washington VAAC reported emissions but ash was not detected by satellite. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 20-26 August IG reported moderate to high volcanic activity at Reventador, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor. On 20 August ash plumes, observed through partly cloudy skies, remained near the volcano. On 26 August in the morning hours emissions of water vapor were reported above the crater drifting SW. The volcano was obscured by clouds the other days of the week. On 24 August the Washington VAAC reported an emission with light ash to 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. identified by wind and satellite data, seismic detection, and pilot report.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

IGP reported that on 24-25 August an increase in volcano-tectonic and long-period earthquakes, and during 23-25 August there was a slight increase in white to blueish white fumarolic emissions that rose 500-1500 m above the summit of Sabancaya. On 25 August during the night instruments detected a sequence of explosive events that lasted 82 seconds. On 26 August INGEMMET reported long-period, volcano-tectonic, and hybrid earthquakes. White to light gray plumes rose 100-1300 m above the summit drifting SE.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  San Miguel  | El Salvador  | 13.434°N, 88.269°W  | Elevation 2130 m

On 20-26 August SNET reported low seismic activity at San Miguel. On most days short pulses of white and whitish gray steam plumes were observed at the summit.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

On 20-25 August, INSIVUMEH reported lava flowing towards Upper Nima Canyon I and incandescence within the Santiaguito crater at night. On most days collapses of the lava flow generate fine ash that drifts up to 700 m SW, S, and SE. Fumarolic degassing plumes rose 100-200 m above the crater and drifted up to 2.9 km SW, S, and SE.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 15-21 August lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s SE flank was accompanied by moderate ash explosions, incandescence of the dome summit, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome on 18-19 August. The volcano was obscured by clouds the other days of week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that during 20-26 August low-level eruptive activity continued at Shishaldin volcano. A steam and gas plume was visible in web camera and satellite images occasionally during the week. On 20 August satellite images showed a steam plume extending 60 km N of the volcano. On 23 August a pilot reported a steam-and-ash plume rose about 300 m (1,000 ft) above the summit and drifted NE. On 20-22 and 26 August elevated surface temperatures at the summit were detected in clear satellite views. Infrasound sensors located in Dillingham and on Akutan Island detected sound waves from the direction of Shishaldin that were consistent with low-level eruptive activity. No significant activity noted in seismic data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 20-26 August IG reported that moderate to high eruptive activity continued at Tungurahua, including volcanic tremor, explosions, and long-period earthquakes. On most days explosions described as “canon like” blasts, roars, and “gunfire” were heard near the volcano and rattled windows in the town of Baños on 21 August. On most days ash plumes rose 1.5-5 km (4,900-16,400 ft) above the crater rim and drifted W and SW. On 22-23 August views through intermittent clouds showed blocks falling on the E flank of the volcano and on 24-25 August incandescent blocks fell 1-1.5 km below the crater rim. On 23-26 ashfall was reported in several areas, including Bilbao, Chacauco, Mocha, Choglontus, Tisaleo, and El Manzano. On 26 August muddy water was observed after rains in Mapayacu Gorge. On most days the Washington VAAC reported ongoing and continuous emissions. On 21 August the Washington VAAC reported emissions rose to 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and on 24 August emissions rose to 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. On 26 August short duration explosions were reported.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

During 20-26 August INGEMMET reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. During 20-25 August water vapor, gas, and minor ash plumes rose 200-1800 m above the crater and drifted E, NE, and S. On 21 August an explosion was followed by an ash plume that rose 4.2 km (13,800 ft) above the summit and drifted S and expelled incandescent blocks up to 2 km from the crater, primarily on the S flank. The explosion was heard up to 10 km from the volcano. On 22 August an ash plume rose to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) and drifted E and NE. On 21-22 August ashfall was reported in the towns of Querapi, Ubinas, Escacha, Tonohaya, and Yalahua.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that during 15-21 August that moderate explosive eruption continued at Zhupanovsky. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 16-17 August. On 18 and 15 August the volcano was obscured by clouds. The Tokyo VAAC reported ash plumes rose to 3-4.5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SSE. On August 19 KVERT reported that satellite data showed ash plumes drifted 51 km S of the volcano and on August 20 that ash plumes rose to 3 km (9800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km SSE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
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Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raung Villarrica
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
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Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
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Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Sabancaya
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)