Activity for the week of 29 October-4 November 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 29 October-4 November HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. Breakout lava flows behind the stalled leading edge continued to advance; during 30-31 October a lobe downslope of the Pahoa cemetery was active, burning trees in a forested area and causing numerous loud methane bursts. The lobe entered residential property at 1645 on 31 October, advanced along the N edge of the property, and then stalled on 4 November. The interior areas of the flows continued to inflate.
The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that during 29 October-4 November seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and small amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed most nights. The seismic network detected nine explosions during 29-30 October and two explosions on 31 October; ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted SW. Ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted E on 1 November and SW on 3 November. Periodic ejections of incandescent tephra landed 600 m away on the E and N crater flanks on 4 November. Ash plumes rose 1 km. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
| 3.17°N, 98.392°E
| Elevation 2460 m
Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported localized ash from Sinabung on 2 November, but a meteorological cloud in the area prevented further observations. A pyroclastic flow and an ash plume were recorded by the webcam on 3 November. The ash plume rose to an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; the altitude of the ash plume was again uncertain due to meteorological cloud. On 4 November an ash plume observed with the webcam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Costa Rica
| 10.025°N, 83.767°W
| Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic activity at Turrialba had started to increase in late September, and then in mid-October a three-day swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes was recorded. The largest event, a M 2.8, occurred at 2035 on 16 October at a depth of 5 km beneath the active crater. Magmatic degassing intensified during 28-29 October; sulfur dioxide flux was 2,000 tons per day, higher than the 1,300 tons per day average measured in September and the highest so far during 2014. During the morning of 29 October a seismologist noted a tremor signal which increased in amplitude during the afternoon and evening. An observer at a lodge noted that the gas plume was darker than usual with some ash. At 2310 a small phreatomagmatic eruption from the West Crater lasted about 25 minutes and ended with a strong explosion heard by nearby villagers. An ash cloud rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. Ash fell in San Gerardo de Irazú, San Ramón de Tres Ríos, Coronado, Moravia, Curridabat, Desamparados, Aserrí, Escazú, Santa Ana, Belén, Guácima de Alajuela, Río Segundo de Alajuela, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Guadalupe, areas of Heredia, and the capital of San José (70 km W). The eruption destroyed the wall between the West and Central craters, depositing material around the Central Crater and partially burying it. According to a news report 11 people from Santa Cruz de Turrialba were evacuated to shelters and the national park was closed. Some schools were also temporarily closed, affecting over 300 area students.
The eruption continued during 30-31 October; analyses of collected tephra showed that the proportion of juvenile material increased its volume from 3-5% on 30 October to 7-10% the next day. Magma had not previously reached the surface at Turrialba since an eruption in 1866.
An explosion at 0520 on 1 November generated an ash plume that drifted towards the E and N parts of the Central Valley. A 3 November report stated that during the previous 24 hours seismicity had decreased significantly and no explosions were detected; seismicity remained elevated as compared to levels detected prior to the current activity. An online tool that allowed residents to note if they had observed ashfall during 31 October-4 November showed a dispersion pattern in the Central Valley W and NW of Turrialba.
Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Agence France-Presse (AFP), La Nacion, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano on 1 November. Explosions on 2 November generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 m (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. During 3-4 November ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and W.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 64.633°N, 17.516°W
| Elevation 2000 m
During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October.
Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)
| Komba Island (Indonesia)
| 7.791°S, 123.585°E
| Elevation 633 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 November ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 95 km NE.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km E.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that during 28 October-4 November white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted SW, WSW, WNW, and NW, sometimes down the flanks. Weak incandescence from the crater was noted at night on 28 October. A few volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals were recorded during 29-31 October and 4 November. A 4 November report noted that ground deformation had been detected since the beginning of 2014. Tilt data from the network on the NW flank indicated continuing inflation since August, subsequent to a period of inflation in June and July. The inflation events were thought to correspond to a magma body, approximately 107 cubic meters, slowly intruding at depth. Precise leveling measurements also indicated sustained inflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
| Honshu (Japan)
| 35.893°N, 137.48°E
| Elevation 3067 m
JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 29 October-4 November; white plumes rose 100-300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE and SE during 29-30 October and 4 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-4 November ash plumes from the active lava-flow front on the S flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex rose 200 m. Explosions during 3-4 November rose 500 m and drifted SW, producing ashfall in Monte Claro (S) and mountainous areas of Palajunoj village (18 km SSW).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 24-31 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 27 and 29-30 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. Strong explosions on 28 and 30 October generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Ash plumes on those two days drifted more than 500 km NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Fox Islands (USA)
| 54.756°N, 163.97°W
| Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that mostly cloudy satellite and webcam views showed nothing unusual at Shishaldin during 29 October-4 November, although the low-level eruptive activity continued. Periods of tremor were detected and overall seismicity remained elevated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 53.589°N, 159.15°E
| Elevation 2899 m
KVERT reported that the eruption at Zhupanovsky had likely finished in mid-October; satellite images last detected an explosion on 11 October and a thermal anomaly on 12 October. Volcanologists conducting an overflight on 17 October observed only gas-and-steam activity from the active crater. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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