Activity for the week of 24 December-30 December 2014
Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 24 December-30 December 2014.
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 24 December-30 December 2014.
Activity for the week of 24 December-30 December 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||New|
|Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Tonga Islands||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Manam||Papua New Guinea||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.532°N, 150.871°E | Elevation 742 m
SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly on 23 and 25 December. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 22-29 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Etna | Sicily (Italy) | 37.748°N, 14.999°E | Elevation 3295 m
INGV reported that starting at 1750 on 28 December Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) produced a short but intense eruption characterized by lava fountains, lava flows, and an ash plume that drifted E and caused ash and lapilli fall in Milo, Fornazzo, South Alfio, and Giarre. Inclement weather prevented observations of the summit area so the erupting crater was not identifiable. Two lava flows traveled E and NE, towards the Valle del Bove. Tremor began to decrease at 1930, and indicated that the eruption was over at 2100.
Gamalama | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 0.8°N, 127.33°E | Elevation 1715 m
Based on satellite observations, ground reports, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-25 December ash plumes from Gamalama rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 30 km SW.
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai | Tonga Islands | 20.536°S, 175.382°W | Elevation 114 m
According to a news article, fisherman had reported an eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai on 19 December. A photographer in Tongatapu captured a photo of a steam plume rising from the area on 30 December and noted that steam plumes had been visible since 24 December; dense clouds on the horizon prevented views before then. Terra MODIS imagery from 29 December also showed white plumes and areas of discolored water near the islands.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.787°S, 71.857°W | Elevation 5960 m
Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) | 32.884°N, 131.104°E | Elevation 1592 m
JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November continued intermittently during 22-26 December. Plumes rose 1 km above the crater and incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 December an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 95 km NE.
Bardarbunga | Iceland | 64.633°N, 17.516°W | Elevation 2000 m
During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.
Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 24-30 December HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system advanced, and by 30 December the front was about 800 m above the intersection of Pahoa Village Road and Highway 130, and 604 m from the Pahoa Marketplace.
The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.
Manam | Papua New Guinea | 4.08°S, 145.037°E | Elevation 1807 m
RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-26 December; white vapor emissions rose from both craters. Diffuse gray ash clouds rose at most 200 m from Southern Crater during 21-22 December.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that during 24-30 December seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor and gas, which occasionally contained ash during 27-30 December. Cloud cover sometimes prevented views of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was visible some nights. During 24-25 December there were 6-7 explosions detected by the network. An explosion on 26 December generated an ash plume that rose 3.5 km above the crater and drifted NE. Six explosions were detected on 27 December; those at 1258 and 2036 produced ash plumes that rose 0.8-1.5 km and drifted NE. An explosion at 2348 generated a plume with low ash content that rose 0.5 km and drifted S. An explosion on 29 December produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted NE. On 30 December there were 10 explosions that all produced ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted NE; one of the explosions generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 19-26 December lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A strong explosion on 20 December generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 19-21 and 23-25 December, and ash plumes drifting 370 km E during 20-21 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 23-30 December. Nothing significant was observed in partly-to-mostly cloudy satellite and web camera images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.589°N, 159.15°E | Elevation 2899 m
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ahyi||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Vicente|
|Antuco||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semisopochnoi|
|Azul, Cerro||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Soputan|
|Azumayama||Home Reef||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Momotombo||Soufriere Hills|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere St. Vincent|
|Banda Api||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Ijen||Mutnovsky||St. Helens|
|Bezymianny||Iliwerung||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Callaqui||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kambalny||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chiles-Cerro Negro||Kasatochi||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Katla||Paluweh||Tenerife|
|Copahue||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Toliman|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Unknown Source|
|Ekarma||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Langila||Ruapehu||Zhupanovsky|
|Eyjafjallajokull||Lanin||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sakar|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)