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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 January-13 January 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 7 January-13 January 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Colima Mexico New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga Islands New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Fogo Cape Verde Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Sinarka Shiashkotan Island (Russia) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly during 10-11 January. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 5-12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on news articles, an explosion from Colima at about 0900 on 3 January generated an ash plume that rose 3 km. Ash fell in the municipalities of Zapotlán El Grande (26 km NE), Gómez Farías (34 km NNE), Concepción de Buenos Aires (63 km NE), Manzanilla de la Paz (72 km NE), Toliman (31 km WNW), Tuxpan (25 km ENE), Zapotiltic (23 km NE), Tamazula de Gordian (42 km NE), Valle de Juárez (85 km NE), Mazamitla (78 km NE), and Tonila (150 km NE). An explosion on 8 January generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and caused ashfall in Tuxpan, Tonila, and Zapotiltic. Another explosion on 11 January generated an ash plume that rose 1 km and caused ashfall in Tuxpan. An ash plume rose 500 m on 12 January and drifted ENE.

Sources: Informador, Informador, Informador



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported that at night during 6-7 January the frequency of Strombolian explosions at Etna's Voragine Crater decreased; however, some of the explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material outside of the crater and onto the W and SW flanks. On 7 January many of the small explosions generated brown ash plumes that rose a few hundred meters above Etna's summit and quickly dissipated. Strombolian activity increased on 8 January, possibly from two vents within the crater. Pyroclastic material continued to be ejected out of the crater. Early on 9 January Strombolian activity again decreased and gave way to ash emissions that rose several hundred meters. Ash emissions continued the next morning, decreased, and had almost completely ceased by late morning. Ash emissions resumed in the afternoon and were sometimes accompanied by Strombolian explosions. Ash emissions on 13 January were continuous in the morning but then decreased in frequency by the afternoon.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai  | Tonga Islands  | 20.536°S, 175.382°W  | Elevation 114 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Wellington VAAC reported that a dark ash plume from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 January.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption began at Klyuchevskoy on 1 January; bombs were ejected 300-400 m above the crater. On 10 January strong gas-and-steam emissions containing ash were recorded by the webcam. Video images also indicated a possible lava flow on the S flank. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity continued during 11-12 January, and explosions generated ash plumes that rose 5-7 km (16,400-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images on 11 January showed a 12.5-km-wide, 36.8-km-long ash plume drifting at an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. On 12 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that four explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 5-9 January. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 7-8 January. Inflation continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-8, 10, and 12-13 January plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, SW, and NW. On 8 and 10 January pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November continued intermittently during 5-9 January. On 5 and 7 January incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim. On 7 January plumes rose 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.633°N, 17.516°W  | Elevation 2000 m

During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

SVERT reported that steam-and-gas emissions detected in satellite images rose 3 km above Chirinkotan and drifted SE on 5 January. A thermal anomaly was visible during 8 and 10-11 January. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 6-12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Fogo  | Cape Verde  | 14.95°N, 24.35°W  | Elevation 2829 m

The Observatório Vulcanológico de Cabo Verde (OVCV) reported that on 8 January the eruption at Fogo decreased in intensity; a small light-colored gas plume rose at most 100 m from the craters. Some explosions, following banging noises, were felt in areas 1 km away. Periodic explosions continued the next day and at 1530 a dark gas-and-ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted SE. On 10 January light-colored, dense plumes rose at 800-1,200 m. Explosions on 11 January produced light-colored gas plumes that rose as high as1.5 km. On 12 January gas-and-ash plumes rose 800-1,000 m. In the afternoon a strong explosion was followed by smaller explosions and accompanying crashing noises that lasted for 2 hours. A very dense and dark-gray ash plume rose 2 km and drifted E, and was observed by people in S Philip and other parts of the island. At 1900 tephra was ejected 50 m above the crater. The lava-flow fronts to the N and S of Ilhéu de Losna were stagnant, while a few outbreaks were observed in Portela and Bangaeira.

Source: Universidade of Cabo Verde



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

During 8-13 January INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego continued at a high rate; explosions generated ash plumes that rose 550-950 m above the crater and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Incandescent blocks traveled mainly down the Ceniza (SSW), Santa Teresa (W), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages and reached vegetated areas, generating small fires. Ashfall was reported in Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and areas in the municipality of San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). During 10-13 January explosions ejected incandescent tephra 100-200 m above the crater causing avalanches in the Taniluya (SSW), Ceniza, and Trinidad (S) drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 7-13 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with breakout lava flows upslope of the leading front. On 13 January scientists conducted an overflight of the flow field and observed scattered breakouts along the distal part of the flow between 0.5 and 1 km upslope of the stalled flow front; a narrow lobe that had been advancing NNE was 700 m upslope of the stalled front. Additional breakouts were scattered from 1.7 to 3 km upslope of the flow tip and near the crack system.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

JMA reported that no eruptions occurred from Kuchinoerabujima during 5-9 January, although the level of activity remained elevated. White plumes rose 500 m above the crater. Low-level seismicity continued and tremor was absent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

According to a news article, increased ash emissions at Nevado del Ruiz prompted the closure of the La Nubia airport on 7 January.

Source: Prensa Latina



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 7-10 and 13 January seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor and gas, which occasionally contained ash; steam-and-gas plumes were visible during 11-12 January. Cloud cover sometimes prevented views of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was visible nightly. Small explosions on 8 January at 1959 and on 9 January at 0149 produced ash plumes that rose 500 and 800 m, respectively. Three ash plumes recorded during 9-10 January rose 500-800 m and drifted E. An explosion on 12 January generated an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that an explosion from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in Monte Claro (S) and the Palajunoj area. On 11 January the lava-flow front was incandescent and produced avalanches that descended the flank. An explosion on 13 January generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 2-9 January lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A strong explosion on 7 January generated an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. A small pyroclastic flow descended the SE flank of the dome. Satellite images detected an ash plume drifting 350 km NW on 7 January, and a thermal anomaly over the dome during 7-8 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 7-13 January. Nothing significant was observed in clear-to-partly cloudy satellite and web camera images. In a report from 9 January AVO noted that a small number of air-pressure waves from minor explosions within the summit crater were detected in seismic data intermittently during the previous week; there was no evidence of ash emissions outside of the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported an eruption from Sinabung on 10 January with an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas at night on 11 January. During 12-13 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sinarka  | Shiashkotan Island (Russia)  | 48.873°N, 154.182°E  | Elevation 911 m

SVERT reported that steam-and-gas emissions detected in satellite images rose 3 km above Sinarka and drifted SE on 5 January. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 6-12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 2-9 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 50 km E on 6 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)