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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

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You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 January-3 February 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 28 January-3 February 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Colima Mexico New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Pacaya Guatemala New
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) New
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 29 January a brief emission from Colima with low ash content drifted 30 km SW. The next day a few brief emissions rose from the crater and dissipated about 37 km SW. In a 2 February bulletin, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil reported that Colima remained active, although there was a slight decrease in the number and size of lava-block avalanches. Lava flows on the SW and WNW flanks minimally advanced, and small landslides of lava blocks were observed. Residents were warned not go within 5 km of the volcano.

Sources: Washington Post, Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported that a new eruptive episode at Etna began on 31 December and lasted through the morning of 2 February. Poor meteorological conditions prevented views of the summit area during the first 36 hours of the eruption. During improved viewing conditions on the evening of 1 February, volcanologists observed Strombolian activity from a single vent in the saddle between the cones of the Southeast Crater (SEC). Explosions occurred every few seconds and ejected incandescent bombs 200 m high. At the same time a vent at the base of the southern SEC cone issued a lava flow that traveled 2 km S, dividing into two branches. At dawn on 2 February the Strombolian activity produced a dense ash cloud that drifted E. At about 0550 emissions stopped and volcanic tremor suddenly decreased.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 January a moderate explosive eruption at Karymsky continued. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano, and ash plumes that rose 3.5-4 km above the crater and drifted 160 km E and N during 21-23 and 27 January.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 January a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued. Incandescence at the summit was visible and bombs were ejected 200-300 m above the crater. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l.; ashfall was reported in Klyuchi Village (30 km NNE) and near the Khapitsa River on 27 January, and in Kozyrevsk Village (50 km W) on 28 January. A lava flow effused onto the E flank; phreatic explosions at the lava flow front produced gas-and-steam clouds with minor amounts of ash that rose 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 27-28 January. Satellite images showed a daily, big, bright thermal anomaly over the volcano, and ash-and-gas plumes drifting 300 km W, N, NE, E, and SE at altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

In a special notice INSIVUMEH reported that on 28 January ash emissions originating from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater drifted 4 km S and SW. During field observations, scientists saw a defined central crater, 40-50 m in diameter, and ash emissions. Gas plumes rose from an area on the S flank. Seismic data was characterized by tremor and low-frequency events. In a report from 1 February, INSIVUMEH stated that low-altitude water vapor plumes with minor amounts of ash drifted W and SW. During 1-2 February fumarolic plumes rose 50 m and drifted 600 m S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Ruapehu  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.28°S, 175.57°E  | Elevation 2797 m

On 30 January, GeoNet reported that water temperatures of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had been increasing since early December 2014, rising from 15 degrees Celsius to over 40. Similar temperatures were recorded in March 2011 and April 2014, before the lake cooled.

Data from a field visit on 14 January showed increased amounts of volcanic gas emissions through the lake. Other recent observations from pilots and field visits confirmed that the lake changed color from blue green to light gray due to lake convection. A GeoNet volcanologist noted that lake temperature cycling was not unusual; five heating cycles have been detected since 2010. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Green and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest).

Source: GeoNet



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

Based on statements from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 February an ash plume from Soputan rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images; ash was not visible at the reported altitude, but possible ash was detected to the N at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 January-3 February plumes from Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.3 km (5,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. On 1 February pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3.3 km (9,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA reported that nine explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,800 m during 26-30 January. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night, and inflation continued to be detected. An explosion on 30 January caused tephra fall (2 cm in diameter) in Kagoshima Kurokami (3.5 km E). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued intermittently during 26-30 January. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim, and plumes rose 800 m above the crater. High-amplitude tremor continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.633°N, 17.516°W  | Elevation 2000 m

During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty).

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

SVERT reported that weak steam-and-gas emissions from Chirinkotan were detected in satellite images on 31 January. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 26 January-2 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a weak thermal anomaly on 26 January. Cloud cover obscured views during 27 January-2 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

According to a news article, heavy rains on 22 January triggered lahars that descended Karangetang's flanks, overflowed ravines, and damaged some public and private buildings. Some traffic disruptions were also reported.

Source: JPNN



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 28 January-3 February HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to widen and breakout lava flows continued upslope of the leading front. The most northern lobe of lava was about 500 m above Highway 130 by 3 February, near police and fire stations. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-31 January; diffuse white vapor emissions were observed rising from both craters during brief clear views. Incandescence from Main Crater fluctuated from weak to bright during 19 and 23-27 January.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported moderate seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador during 28 January-3 February. Cloudy conditions obscured views of the summit most of the time. On 28 January a steam plume with low ash content rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. During 29-30 January steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose 400-500 m and drifted SW and S.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 January-1 February explosions from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted WSW, causing ashfall in the Palajunoj area. The lava flow on the SE flank was incandescent and produced avalanches that descended the SE and E flanks. An explosion on 13 January generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW. Block avalanches originated from Caliente cone. Explosions the next day produced plumes that drifted SW. Explosions during 2-3 February generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SE. The lava flow remained active.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 January lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions on 21, 26, and 29 January generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-7.5 km (13,100-24,600 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting more than 500 km NW, NE, and E during 21-22, 26-27, and 29 January. A thermal anomaly over the dome was detected daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 28 January-3 February. Nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite and web camera images, although minor steaming from the summit was recorded by the webcam during 30 January-3 February. During 31 January-3 February elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite images, and during 1-2 February low-level ash emissions drifted WSW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 23-30 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 160 km SW and SE at altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. during 22 and 25-26 January, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 23 and 25-27 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)