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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 11 March-17 March 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 11 March-17 March 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Fuego Guatemala New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Ruang Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) New
Turrialba Costa Rica New
Ubinas Peru New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 10-11 March the magnitude and number of explosions at Fuego increased, producing ash plumes that rose 650-950 m above the crater and drifted 12 km W, NW, and N. Shock waves from explosions were detected in nearby areas including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). During 12-13 March explosions generated ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted 10-12 km S and SW. Incandescent tephra was ejected 100 m high. During 15-16 March ash plumes from explosions rose 550-950 m and drifted 10-12 km WSW; shock waves were reported and ash fell in Panimache, Morelia, and Santa Sofía (12 km SW).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 10-17 March the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded between 6 and 100 gas-and-steam emissions that likely contained some ash; cloud cover mostly prevented observations of the volcano, so on most days ash in the plumes was not confirmed. Two explosions at 1047 on 10 March generated ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater. An explosion on 11 March produced a plume that rose 1 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Ruang  | Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)  | 2.3°N, 125.37°E  | Elevation 725 m

PVMBG reported that emissions from Ruang were unobserved during periods of clear weather from 1 January through 12 March. Seismicity increased starting on 6 March prompting PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 March. Residents and tourists were warned not to approach the craters within a 1.5-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

Based on webcam views, weather models, and OVSICORI-UNA updates, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 March diffuse ash emissions rose from Turrialba's West Crater and seismicity increased. OVSICORI-UNA reported an ash emission at 0100 on 11 March. Another ash emission occurred at 1050 on 12 March. Almost continuous ash emissions were observed in the afternoon and were punctuated by two noticeable explosions at 1338 and 1450. Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted NW. Ashfall occurred in the Central Valley and in the capital of San Jose (30 km WSW), and caused the closure of the Juan Santamaria International Airport, 48 km W, which reopened during the evening on 13 March. The local Tobias Bolanos airport (40 km WSW) closed intermittently. On 13 March two short explosions occurred at 1045 and 1100, and then a third occurred at 2100. According to the VAAC, ash plumes that day drifted 45 km NE at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km W at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Comisión Nacional de Prevención de Riesgos y Atención de Emergencias (CNE)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) Observatorio Volcanológico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 10 February-17 March seismicity at Ubinas was generally low, although a hybrid event was detected on 11 March. Two main sources of seismicity were located 1 km W of the crater at depths of 1-3 km and 2 km NW at depths of 1-5 km. Water-vapor emissions rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater. Sporadic ash emissions were observed on 17 March.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that 10 explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 13-16 March. Incandescence from the crater was periodically visible at night, and inflation continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-17 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.3 km (6,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and N.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that, based on seismic data, the eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 13-16 March. High-amplitude tremor continued, although it had decreased on 9 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly during 9, 14, and 15 March. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 9-16 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, Mexico City MWO, Colima Tower notices, and a webcam, the Washington VAAC reported ash plumes from Colima during 11-13 March. On 12 March an ash cloud observed in satellite images was located between 40 and 90 km ENE. Additional emissions produced ash plumes that drifted 50-90 km ENE. Later that day ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6.1-6.7 km (20,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE. On 13 March an ash plume rose to an altitude below 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Thermal anomalies were detected during 12-13 March.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on a pilot observation, analyses of satellite imagery, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 March an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 6-13 March moderate activity at Karymsky continued. Satellite images showed ash deposits extending in different directions and a thermal anomaly on the volcano on 7 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 11-17 March HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with several small and scattered breakouts within the flow-field margins, upslope of the leading front. Most of the erupting lava was found in the two largest breakouts: the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o and the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a. A third and relatively small breakout was 5 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. A small lava pond was visible in the S portion of the crater. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. During 12-13 March a tiny lava flow erupted from the NE edge of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

After a quiet period of 24 hours at Klyuchevskoy, volcanic-tremor magnitude significantly increased at 0500 on 10 March prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange. Video images showed moderate gas-and-steam activity while satellite images detected a gas-and-steam plume with small amounts of ash drifting about 92 km ESE at an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. During 10-11 March a weak thermal anomaly over the summit was detected.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-18 March although inclement weather made crater observations difficult; no noises were reported. Seismicity had slowly and erratically increased since 28 February, peaked on 13 March and remained at that level through 15 March, and then increased again through 18 March. The seismicity was characterized by small-to-moderate, sub-continuous, and continuous volcanic tremor. Discrete low-frequency earthquakes were also recorded.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 10-17 March IG reported moderate seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. A lava flow continued to descend the SW flank and was 1.2 m long by 13 March.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 6-13 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions on 8 March generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 885 km E. A daily thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels during 11-17 March, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Minor steaming from the summit was observed in webcam images on 11 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 6-13 March. Two strong explosions on 7 and 8 March generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 333 km E on 7 and 10 March, and 232 km NE on 8 March. A thermal anomaly was also detected during 7-10 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fourpeaked Little Sitkin San Cristobal
Ahyi Fuego Llaima San Miguel
Aira Fujisan Loihi San Vicente
Akan Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung Sangay
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Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ibu Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Ijen Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliamna Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Ioto Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Iya Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kaba Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kadovar NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raung Villarrica
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
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Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
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Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)