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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 4 November-10 November 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 4 November-10 November 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Fuego Guatemala New
Rinjani Lombok Island (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Gamalama Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Gamkonora Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Paluweh Indonesia Ongoing
Sangeang Api Indonesia Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 and 8-10 November explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose 550-750 m above the crater and drifted 10-15 km S and SE. Ashfall was reported in Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high and produced avalanches that descended the Santa Teresa, Trinidad, and Las Lajas (S) drainages. During 8-9 November a new lava flow traveled 1.5 km down the Las Lajas and El Jute (SE) drainages. By 10 November the lava flow was 2.5 km long. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high, and ashfall was reported in Panimache I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo and the municipality of San Pedro Yepocapa. Later that evening pyroclastic flows descended the E flank. Ash fell in multiple areas including Morelia, Santa Sofía, el Porvenir, Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, Rochela, Ceilán, San Andrés Osuna, El Zapote, Siquinala, Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa, Mazatenango, Patulul, and Cocales.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Rinjani  | Lombok Island (Indonesia)  | 8.42°S, 116.47°E  | Elevation 3726 m

PVMBG reported that after an eruption occurred at Rinjani on 25 October tremor amplitude increased, and was continuous from 1109 on 2 November through 0600 on 5 November. During 25-31 October dense white emissions rose 900 m above Barujari Crater. During 1-5 November dense gray-to-brown ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater. The webcam showed incandescent material being ejected from the crater on 4 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius. Based on a 9-November PVMBG notice, BNPB reported that a lava flow had traveled 1 km E of the crater, towards the Koko Putih River. Incandescent material was ejected 750 m above the crater and ash plumes rose 2.5 km. Based on satellite observations and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-10 November ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 740 km NW, W, SW, and S.

According to news articles, Ngurah Rai International Airport in Bali reopened on 9 November but some international flights had remained canceled; the airport had closed the evening before. The closure of Lombok International Airport had been extended until 10 November.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Post



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 2-6 November two small-scale eruptions occurred at Showa Crater, at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, and notices from Colima Towers and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9 November ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.9-6 km (16,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 13-24 km N, NW, W, SW, and S. On 10 November emissions released about every two hours rose to an altitude of 5.7 (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cotopaxi  | Ecuador  | 0.677°S, 78.436°W  | Elevation 5911 m

IG reported that during 4-10 November gas, steam, and ash plumes rose almost daily from Cotopaxi as high as 1.5 km above the crater. Minor ashfall was reported S of the volcano on 6 November, and small lahars descended the W flank during 6 and 8-9 November.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 August-3 November white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 1 km above the rim of Dukono's Malupang Warirang crater and were accompanied by rumbling and roaring. Ashfall was reported in areas from the Galela District to Tobelo town (NNW) in August and at the Dukono observation post in September. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, with elevated periods during 15-22 August, 28 August-5 September, and 15-25 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-10 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-130 km N, NW, W, SW, and S.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Gamalama  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 0.8°N, 127.33°E  | Elevation 1715 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 August-4 November seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated, and was dominated by hybrid earthquakes and signals indicating emissions. Three periods of increased seismicity were recorded during 3-5 and 11-19 August, and 8-22 October, though seismicity declined overall.

A sudden, small eruption from a fissure on the NW flank occurred at 1953 on 8 September with no precursory seismicity, and produced a plume that rose 1 km. Gray plumes rose from 300-600 m the vent during 9-24 September. White plumes rose from Main Crater and fissures on the E and NW flanks as high as 200 m during 1 October-3 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Gamkonora  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.38°N, 127.53°E  | Elevation 1635 m

PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1 August-3 November diffuse white plumes rose up to 70 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; an increase was detected in October coincident with a period of increased tremor. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 July. Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 August-3 November white-to-gray plumes rose as high as 500 m above Ibu’s craters. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away from the N side.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported during 28 October-4 November that activity remained stable. The lava dome was incandescent at night and produced a lava flow that traveled 200 m S. Incandescent avalanches from the lava-flow front traveled as far as 2 km E down the Batuawang and Kahetang drainages. Seismicity decreased, but continued to be dominated by avalanche signals. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 30 October-6 November. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 40 km NE on 2 November and 96 km SE on 4 November at an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 4-10 November. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 2.2-6.4 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 28 October-5 November observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater), saw white plumes rising as high as 125 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated, but the seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) showed an increasing trend. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during 1 August-2 November diffuse white plumes rose as high as 200 m above Paluweh. Seismicity remained relatively stable. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the summit within a radius of 1.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Sangeang Api  | Indonesia  | 8.2°S, 119.07°E  | Elevation 1912 m

PVMBG reported that observers at the Sangeang Api observation post in Desa Sangeang Darat, Bima, West Nusa Tenggara, reported that during 1 July-30 September diffuse white plumes rose up to 250 m above the crater rim. During 1 October-1 November white-to-gray plumes rose as high as 350 m. Beginning on 23 October occasional weak thumping noises were reported. Crater incandescence possibly indicated lava-dome growth or lava-flow advancement. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 30 October-6 November lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected an intense daily thermal anomaly over the dome. Explosions and hot avalanches generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 30 km SE on 3 and 5 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 4-10 November, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater continued. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. A pyroclastic flow was visible on 8 November; an ash plume was generated but the altitude was unable to be determined due to a weather cloud in the area.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported high seismic activity at Tungurahua during 4-10 November, characterized by long-period events, volcano-tectonic events, an explosion, and signals indicating emissions; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. When occasionally visible, steam, gas, and ash plumes rose as high as 700 m, and drifted W, NE, and E. On 7 November a lahar in Chontapamba carried blocks 1 m in diameter and caused a road closure between Baños and Penipe. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible during 8-9 November, and ash fell in Choglontús, Manzano, and Palitahua on 9 November.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) Observatorio Volcanológico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 3-9 November ash-and-gas emissions rose above Ubinas. A moderate explosion detected at 1216 on 5 November generated an ash plume that rose 2.2 km. Thermal anomalies were detected on 3, 5, and 8 November.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
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Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
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Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
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Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
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Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)