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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 23 March-29 March 2016.


















 Activity for the week of 23 March-29 March 2016

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Chikurachki Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Kanlaon Philippines New
Pavlof United States New
Sangay Ecuador New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Masaya Nicaragua Ongoing
Momotombo Nicaragua Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Telica Nicaragua Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Alaid  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 50.861°N, 155.565°E  | Elevation 2285 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 18-25 March. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the volcano during 18 and 21-25 March; cloud cover obscured views during 19-20 March. A gas-and-steam plume containing minor amounts of ash drifted about 90 km NW on 22 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chikurachki  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.324°N, 155.461°E  | Elevation 1781 m

KVERT reported that at 1259 on 29 March an ash plume from Chikurachki was observed in satellite images rising to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting about 50 km NE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. By 0852 on 30 March the ash plume was drifting 87 km S. Chikurachki is not monitored with seismic instruments but is observed using ground-based methods and satellite images.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kanlaon  | Philippines  | 10.412°N, 123.132°E  | Elevation 2435 m

PHIVOLCS reported that at 1820 on 29 March the seismic network at Kanlaon detected an explosion that lasted about 12 minutes. The event was accompanied by a booming sound heard in communities to the W, including Ara-al, Yubo, La Carlota City (14 km W), and Canlaon City (8 km ESE) in Negros Occidental. Observers to the SE reported an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater; minor amounts of ash fell in areas downwind. Incandescent ejecta caused a small bushfire on the upper flank. A 25-second-long explosion was detected at 1918. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Pavlof  | United States  | 55.417°N, 161.894°W  | Elevation 2493 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof began to increase at about 1553 on 27 March, characterized by a quick onset of continuous tremor. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and by 1618 was drifting N. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning. During the night lava fountaining from the summit crater was observed by mariners, pilots, and residents of Cold Bay (60 km SW). Lahars likely descended the flanks. Tremor levels remained high on 28 March. Lightning in the ash plume was detected in the morning, and infrasound data from a sensor network located in Dillingham (650 km away) also indicated sustained ash emissions. At 0700 a continuous ash plume was evident in satellite images drifting more than 650 km NE. A SIGMET issued by the National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Aviation Weather Unit indicated that the maximum ash-cloud altitude was 11 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. Strongly elevated surface temperatures suggested the presence of surficial lava flows.

The intensity of the eruption significantly declined at 1230 on 28 March; seismicity and infrasound signals decreased to low levels. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Seismic tremor was slightly above background levels. Ash emissions decreased through the night and were barely visible in a satellite image acquired at 0625 on 29 March. Remnant ash continued to drift over Bristol Bay and areas of interior Alaska. The webcam recorded intermittent, low-level ash plumes rising as high as 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on notices from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 March an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 27 March a pilot observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations of the volcano on all three days.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that an explosion at 0159 on 24 March from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m, and generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim. At 0825 on 25 March an explosion at Minamidake summit crater produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim. Two explosions at Showa Crater, detected at 0248 and 1044 on 26 March, sent ash plumes as high as 2.7 km and ejected tephra 1.3 km away onto the flanks. Tephra 8 mm in diameter fell 4 km away. Ash from an explosion at Minamidake rose as high as 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 March ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km NE and ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, during 21-25 and 27 March. Steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 24 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that during 24 and 27-29 March ash plumes from Colima rose to altitude of 4-6.1 km (13,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 23-26 March webcam and satellite images detected steam-and-ash emissions rising above Copahue’s crater to altitudes of 3-3.3 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE, SE, and S.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

PVMBG reported that during 7-22 March white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the rim of Dukono's Malupang Warirang crater, and were accompanied by roaring heard at the Dukono observation post 11 km away. The weather conditions were generally not windy so ash was deposited around the crater area. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, but decreased overall compared the end of 2015. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-29 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km E, SE, S, and SW.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-25 and 27-29 March explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose 550-950 m above the crater and drifted 6-12 km SE, S, SW, and W. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high on 25 March, producing avalanches within the crater and down the Trinidad (S), Ceniza (SSW), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. On 29 March ashfall was reported Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW) and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

PVMBG reported that during 7-22 March gray-to-gray-black plumes rose as high as 700 m above Ibu’s summit crater, although inclement weather often prevented visual observations. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome in the N part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 18-25 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 23-29 March. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. A small lava flow broke out from a spatter cone on the NE side of the crater floor on 24 March and again the next evening. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 7.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Masaya  | Nicaragua  | 11.984°N, 86.161°W  | Elevation 635 m

According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels.

Source: Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Momotombo  | Nicaragua  | 12.423°N, 86.539°W  | Elevation 1270 m

On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km.

Source: Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Based on an ASHTAM (a special Notice to Airmen for airborne ash), the Washington VAAC reported a possible emission from Nevado del Ruiz on 28 March. Ash was not identified in satellite images, though a thermal anomaly was detected. A period of increased seismicity was detected the next day, and observers reported another possible ash emission.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 22-29 March the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 6-60 daily emissions that sometimes contained ash; 127 were detected on 28 March. Crater incandescence was observed on most nights. At 1052 on 24 March an ash plume rose 1.6 km above the crater and drifted NE. At 0026 the next morning a low-intensity explosion generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted NE. Incandescent tephra was ejected as far as 400 m onto the N flank. Explosions during 27-29 March generated plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-25 and 27-29 March explosions from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m and drifted SW. Weak avalanches descended the E and SW flanks of the dome. On 25 March ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW) and Palajunoj (18 km SSW).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 18-25 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected an intense thermal anomaly over the dome almost every day; cloud cover obscured views of the volcano during 20-21 March. An ash plume drifted 38 km N on 23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 28-29 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, W, and SW. A low-level ash plume was identified by PVMBG on 27 March.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

PVMBG reported that during 21-28 March diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 100 m above the crater and drifted E. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating avalanches and emissions; shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected on 21 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 6.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21, 23-24, and 26 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, W, and SE. Ash emissions continued on 27 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Telica  | Nicaragua  | 12.606°N, 86.84°W  | Elevation 1036 m

In a 28 March report, SINAPRED noted that incandescence from Telica’s crater continued to be observed, and reminded people to stay away from the crater.

Source: Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 18-25 March. According to KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC noted that an explosion generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. at 0120 on 25 March. An 8 x 10 km ash cloud observed in satellite images drifted about 135 km NW at altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. that same day. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fourpeaked Little Sitkin San Cristobal
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Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Ioto Negro, Cerro Sumbing
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Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
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Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
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Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
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Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)