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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

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You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 September-4 October 2016.


















 Activity for the week of 28 September-4 October 2016

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Colima Mexico New
Iya Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Katla Iceland New
Rinjani Lombok Island (Indonesia) New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Ubinas Peru New

Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Nevados de Chillan Chile Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

The Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima reported that on 26 September seismicity at Colima increased, and crater incandescence was observed later that day. On 27 September small landslides originating from a new and growing lava dome traveled 100 m down the S flank. The exclusion zone was increased from 5 to 10 km in the Montegrande canyon; a 5-km exclusion zone was maintained in the other areas. According to news articles, incandescent landslides traveled down the S and SE flanks during 29 September-1 October. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 4 km and caused ashfall in nearby areas including La Becererra, La Yerbabuena, San Antonio, and El Jabali in the municipality of Comala, Montitlán in the municipality of Cuauhtémoc, and Juan Barragan in Tonila, Jalisco. On 1 October the Colima State government stated that the communities of La Yerbabuena (80 people) and La Becerrera (230 people) were preemptively evacuated, and the exclusion zone was extended to 12 km except on the Jalisco side (maintained at 7.5 km). A news article noted that Juan Barragan was also evacuated.

The Washington VAAC reported that on 29 September gas-and-steam emission possibly containing minor amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 30 September the webcam showed intense activity and crater incandescence, and gas-and-steam emissions that may have contained ash drifting WNW. An intense thermal anomaly was visible in short-wave infrared satellite images. Later that day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km W. Possible emissions with ash were recorded by the webcam on 1 October; weather clouds obscured views of the crater. An ash plume detected in satellite images drifted almost 40 km S and SW. Later that day the webcam recorded explosions and pyroclastic flows. On 2 October ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6.1-8.2 km (20,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Emissions later that day were mostly comprised of gas and steam; seismicity decreased, though a thermal anomaly continued to be detected in satellite images. On 3 October ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.4 km (18,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-40 km SW and SWW. Ashfall was reported in areas on the S and SW flanks. Based on webcam views ash emissions rose to an estimated altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 4 October.

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima, Televisa



Volcano index photo  Iya  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.897°S, 121.645°E  | Elevation 637 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 July-29 September variable-density white plumes rose as high as 150 m above Iya. During most of that period seismicity was at normal levels characterized by deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes each detected at a rate of less than 10 events per day. Between 1550 and 1800 on 29 September, however, the seismic network detected 17 volcanic earthquakes. Since the number of volcanic earthquakes was significant and above normal levels, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned not to approach the crater within a 2-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Katla  | Iceland  | 63.633°N, 19.083°W  | Elevation 1490 m

The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that an intense seismic swarm began at Katla on 29 September. The activity intensified again at 1202 on 30 September with tremor and several earthquakes M 3 or larger. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second highest level on a four-color scale. On 3 October IMO stated that the seismic swarm was the largest one in decades, though it appeared to be over. According to a news article from 3 October popular travel destinations near the glacier had been and remained closed to traffic.

Sources: Icelandic Met Office (IMO), Iceland Magazine



Volcano index photo  Rinjani  | Lombok Island (Indonesia)  | 8.42°S, 116.47°E  | Elevation 3726 m

Based on data from the Mount Rinjani National Park, BNPB reported that as many as 1,023 tourists were on Rinjani when it erupted on 27 September; officially only 464 people were registered to make the 3-day trek to the volcano and back. Officials began the evacuation of tourists that day. According to a news article, 44 trekkers had still not returned to the entrance points by 1 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was warned not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius.

Sources: The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Post, Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

Based on analyses of satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 September and 1 October ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

According to IGP's Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur (OVS) seismicity at Ubinas increased during 9-14 September, characterized by an increased number of volcano-tectonic and hybrid events. Volcano-tectonic vents also became more intense. A small thermal anomaly was detected on 20 September. According to a news article, an "exhalation" occurred at 1921 on 2 October, and was followed by explosions detected at 2250 that same day, and 0424 and 0552 on 3 October. The largest explosion, at 2250 on 2 October, emitted a dense ash plume that rose 1.7 km and drifted 10 km NE and NW, causing ashfall in Santa Rosa de Phara and Yanapuqui.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Correo, Peru 21



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 September-2 October ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-65 km SE and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.769°N, 124.056°E  | Elevation 1535 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 0650-1240 on 1 October voluminous white-to-grayish emissions rose 200 m from vents on Bulusan's SE flank and drifted SE. Minor amounts of ash fell in the barangays of San Rafael, San Roque, and San Jose, in the municipality of Bulusan. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, information from PVMBG, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 September and 1-4 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

Based on INSIVUMEH reports, CONRED stated that beginning at 0730 on 27 September loud explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted more than 15 km W and SW. After about 36 hours of elevated activity, the 13th Strombolian episode in 2016, Fuego returned to more normal levels. On 28 September there were 4-6 explosions per hour recorded, producing ash plumes that rose 550-650 m and drifted 8-12 km W and SW. Lava flows in the Las Lajas (SE) and Santa Teresa (W) drainages had stalled. Explosions during 30 September-1 October and 3-4 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 7-13 km W, SW, and S. During 3-4 October explosions produced shock waves and ashfall in Morelia (10 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high, and block avalanches reached vegetated areas.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 28 September-4 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level rose as high as 10 m below the Halema'uma'u floor (on 1 October), and was sometimes visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple locations near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 23-30 September. Ash emissions rose from the summit crater and from the cinder cone in the Apakhonchich drainage on the E flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. During 23-24 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 165 km in multiple directions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that a webcam recorded an ash plume rising from Nevado del Ruiz at 0558 on 29 September. Based on information from the Bogota MWO, the Washington VAAC reported on the same day that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. Later that day ASHTAM reports indicated an ash emission to an altitude of 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 13 km S, though cloud cover prevented webcam and satellite image views. An ash emission reported by the Bogota MWO rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 3 October. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.868°S, 71.378°W  | Elevation 3180 m

Based on webcam images and pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 3 October an ash emission from Nevados de Chillán drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

Each day during 28 September-4 October CENAPRED reported 125-389 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatépetl. Cloud cover often prevented observations, though gas-and-steam plumes were visible daily. Crater incandescence was visible on some nights. An explosion at 0929 on 29 September produced a plume that drifted NW. Explosions were also detected at 1813 on 30 September, 1300 on 3 October, and 0231 and 0647 on 4 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 30 September-1 October and 3-4 October explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 1.1 km above the complex and drifted SE, S, and SW. Local ashfall was reported in areas including in San Marcos (10 km SW), Palajunoj (18 km SSW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), El Nuevo Palmar (12 km SSW), and Las Marías.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. Re-suspended ash formed a plume that drifted about 100 km SE and E during 28-29 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on satellite images and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-3.9 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that continuous ash emissions of varying intensity rose from Turrialba during 26-29 September. On the morning of 30 September emissions reduced and rose passively no more than 100 m above the crater. Tremor was constant but had a low amplitude. Later that day intermittent gas, steam, and ash plumes rose as high as 500 m and drifted W and SW. Intermittent eruptions during 2-3 October produced ash plumes that rose no higher than 1 km and drifted S, SSW, SW, and NNE. Ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in multiple areas downwind. Activity increased at 0823 on 3 October, with almost continuous emissions rising at most 1 km, and continued steadily through 4 October.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)