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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 March-13 March 2018.


















 Activity for the week of 7 March-13 March 2018

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Kick 'em Jenny North of Grenada New
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) New
Turrialba Costa Rica New

Agung Bali (Indonesia) Ongoing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Ambae Vanuatu Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kadovar Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Nevados de Chillan Chile Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Kick 'em Jenny  | North of Grenada  | 12.3°N, 61.64°W  | Elevation -185 m

The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that on 12 March the Alert Level for Kick 'em Jenny was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) due to non-specified increased activity. The report reminded marine operators of the 5-km maritime exclusion zone.

Sources: Seismic Research Unit, University of the West Indies, National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA)



Volcano index photo  Kirishimayama  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.934°N, 130.862°E  | Elevation 1700 m

According to news articles, ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, caused the cancelation of about 80 flights in and out of Kagoshima airport on 6 March. JMA reported that daily explosions during 6-13 March generated ash plumes that generally rose 3 km above the crater rim, though an ash plume on 10 March rose as high as 4.5 km. Explosions also ejected tephra that fell 700-1,800 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in a wide area including in the prefectures of Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima. An explosion at 1558 on 9 March rattled structures in the Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefectures. Satellite images showed an increase in the crater diameter from 550 m on 7 March to 650 m on 9 March. During overflights on 9 March observers noted white plumes rising from the margins of the lava covering the crater floor, from lava flows on the S flank, and from newly forming lava flows on the NW flank. The volume of erupted lava was an estimated 14 million cubic meters. The NW lava flow had advanced 226 m by 13 March. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was continuous from 1 March until 1536 on 8 March; afterwards the signals had small amplitudes and were intermittent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Associated Press, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), The Mainichi Daily News



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

RSN and OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new eruptive phase at Turrialba began at 2240 on 6 March with minor ash emissions that rose 500 m above the vent rim and drifted NW. The activity intensified around midnight, with dense ash emissions and the ejection of incandescent blocks, and remained elevated almost until 0300 on 7 March. At 1740 activity again intensified; emissions with an increased volume of ash was recorded by the webcam from 1801-1820 drifting W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that events at 1515 on 8 March and 0920 on 13 March generated ash plumes that rose 300 m and drifted SW and NW, respectively.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Red Sismologica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE), Universidad de Costa Rica and Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Agung  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.343°S, 115.508°E  | Elevation 2997 m

PVMBG reported that although there were sometimes foggy conditions during 7-13 March, white plumes were observed rising as high as 600 m above Agung’s crater rim and drifting E. An event at 2332 on 11 March generated an ash plume that rose about 950 m and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that on 5 March at 2026 an event at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim, into the clouds. Two explosions were detected on 10 March; one of the events, at 2312, generated ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 1.3 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Ambae  | Vanuatu  | 15.389°S, 167.835°E  | Elevation 1496 m

Based on satellite and webcam observations, and model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 12-13 March ash plumes from Ambae rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that unrest continued at Cleveland during 7-13 March. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on 7 March and seismicity slightly increased on 8 March. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-13 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions on 6 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

PVMBG reported that although foggy conditions often prevailed at Ibu ash plumes were observed rising 300-600 m above the carter rim and drifting W and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kadovar  | Papua New Guinea  | 3.608°S, 144.588°E  | Elevation 365 m

RVO reported that emissions from Kadovar’s Main Crater were white from 1 March, until an explosion on 1800 on 5 March was followed by gray emissions through 8 March. The gray plumes rose less than 360 m above the vent and drifted SE. Noises were described as roaring and rumbling during 1-2 and 6-8 March, and booming on 5 March. The lava dome at the SE Coastal Vent continued to grow and rose to 7-8 m above sea level on 1 March, 10-11 m on 2 March, and 10-17 m on 8 March. Dark gray ash plumes rose from the dome. Nighttime incandescence was noted from both Main Crater and the SE vent.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 7-13 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on Pulama pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 6-13 March activity at Mayon was characterized by periods of gravity-driven lava advancement, gas-and-steam emissions, lava fountains, and quiescence. Episodes of weak lava fountaining during 6-10 March were accompanied by ash plumes that rose 100-300 m above the crater and drifted mainly SW. Rumbling sounds were audible at least within a 10-km radius. Active lava flows extended 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 1.9 km long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively. Steam plumes rose 2.4 km and drifted SW on 10 March. The next day white-and-gray plumes rose 2.5 km and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.868°S, 71.378°W  | Elevation 3180 m

Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing activity during 16-28 February associated with a low rate of growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater. Continuous gas emissions from the SE-NW-trending fissure on the dome’s surface were punctuated by emission of ash and water vapor that rose no higher than 1.8 km. During an overflight on 22 February observers noted an increased volume of the dome compared to the previous observation. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 4-km radius.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that each day during 7-13 March there were 105-361 steam and gas emissions from Popocatépetl. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. Explosions were recorded on 7 March. An explosion at 1042 on 12 March generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 6-13 March IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose higher than 600 m above the crater rim and drifted N, NW, and W. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 800 m down the flanks. On 13 March a pyroclastic flow traveled 400 m down the S flank. Weather clouds sometimes prevented visual observations.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya decreased compared to the previous week; explosions averaged 10 per day during 5-11 March. Seismicity was dominated by long-period events, with signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 5.4 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km N, NW, W, and SW. The sulfur dioxide flux was high, at 2,396 tons per day on 9 March. The report noted that the public should not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images on 4 and 6-8 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bardarbunga Ibu Monowai Soufriere Hills
Barren Island Ijen Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Batur Iliamna Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Bezymianny Iliwerung Mutnovsky Spurr
Bogoslof Inielika Myojinsho St. Helens
Brava Ioto Nabro Stromboli
Bristol Island Iya Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nightingale Island Sundoro
Callaqui Kaba Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Cameroon Kadovar Nisyros Suwanosejima
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Novarupta Taal
Cayambe Kanaga NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Cereme Kanlaon Nyamuragira Takawangha
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Nyiragongo Talang
Chaiten Karkar Okataina Tambora
Chiginagak Karthala Okmok Tanaga
Chikurachki Karymsky Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirpoi Kelimutu Pagan Telica
Cleveland Kelut Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Colima Kerinci Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Colo Ketoi Panarea Three Sisters
Concepcion Kharimkotan Papandayan Tinakula
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Parker Tofua
Cotopaxi Kikai Pavlof Tokachidake
Cuicocha Kilauea Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cumbal Kirishimayama Pinatubo Toliman
Dabbahu Kizimen Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Poas Tungurahua
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Dukono Koryaksky Rabaul Ulawun
Ebeko Krakatau Ranakah Unknown Source
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Ekarma Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Epi Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Erebus Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erta Ale Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Etna Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fonualei Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)