Report on Aira (Japan) — April 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 4 (April 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
Aira (Japan) Explosive activity continues; windshield damaged
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Aira (Japan). In: Venzke, E. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:4. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199304-282080.
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Seven explosions . . . were recorded in April . . . . Lapilli from an explosion at 1425 on 7 April cracked the windshield of an automobile on the volcano's island. It was the first direct damage from an explosion since February when windshields from nine autos were damaged. An explosion at 0948 on 2 April produced the highest ash plume of the month, >3,200 m above the crater. No earthquake swarms were recorded.
Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Information Contacts: JMA.