Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — April 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 4 (April 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Small gas and ash explosions
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia). In: Venzke, E (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:4. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199304-300260.
56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
IV noted an increase in activity . . . in mid-March 1993, after a short period of repose, when explosions in the central crater sent an ash-and-gas cloud 1-2 km above the summit. On 15 March, volcanic tremor was noted, increasing in amplitude after 15 April.
A significant increase in seismicity beneath the volcano 24-27 April was reported by IVGG. Observers reported a glow near the summit area during the night of 25-26 April. A snowstorm prevented observation of the volcano 28-29 April, as volcanic tremor continued. Small steam and ash bursts inside the crater rose 200-300 m above the rim on 6 May. The plume extended 40 km NW from the volcano. Volcanic tremor remained above background.
IVGG reported three ash explosions from the summit crater on 10 May between 2030 and 2045, producing a plume that rose ~1 km above the crater rim and extended 7 km about SE. That same day, tremor amplitude measured by IV reached a maximum of 2.4 µm. Occasional steam and ash bursts occurred in the summit crater again 14 May; the plume rose 0.5-1 km above the crater rim and extended 1-7 km SW. Tremor amplitude had decreased by 19 May.
IV geologists note that tremor at Kliuchevskoi is common and is related to eruptive activity in the summit crater and, to a lesser degree, to flank eruptions. Tremor amplitude is largely dependent on the style of volcanic activity: amplitudes <0.5 µm are associated with steam-gas emission; 0.5-3 µm with Vulcanian explosions; and >3 µm with Strombolian explosions or lava spouting. Aircraft observations on 4 April 1993 revealed a newly formed crater at the summit with a diameter of 500 m and a depth of 200 m. A July 1992 overflight by S. A. Fedotov (IV) had previously revealed the almost complete subsidence of the 1984-90 cone. The last episode of dome collapse followed by renewed dome growth took place during 1962-68 when a new small volcanic cone was seen on the floor of the crater and minor lava fountaining was observed from its vent.
Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
Information Contacts: V. Ivanov and V. Dvigalo, IV; V. Kirianov, IVGG