Report on Momotombo (Nicaragua) — March 1994

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 3 (March 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Momotombo (Nicaragua) Voluminous plume from summit crater

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Momotombo (Nicaragua). In: Wunderman, R (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:3. Smithsonian Institution.

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12.423°N, 86.539°W; summit elev. 1270 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

The joint INETER and FIU team visited Momotombo on 13 March 1994, but did not gain access to the crater. At that time the plume rising from the summit crater was voluminous and visible for many kilometers. Temperatures of fumaroles located near the seismic station (just above the S base of the volcano) were similar to last year (though values were unreported in BGVN 18:03, 18:09, & 18:10).

Geologic Background. Momotombo is a young stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows extend down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms an island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of Strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional stronger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after a 10 April 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the south flank.

Information Contacts: Cristian Lugo, INETER; Michael Conway, Andrew Macfarlane, and Peter LaFemina, Florida International Univ; John B. Murray, Ben van Wyk de Vries, and Adam Maciejewski, Open Univ.