Report on Manam (Papua New Guinea) — July 2000
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 25, no. 7 (July 2000)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Manam (Papua New Guinea) An increase in activity at Southern Crater 3-4 June
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2000. Report on Manam (Papua New Guinea). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 25:7. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200007-251020.
Papua New Guinea
4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
This report covers April-June 2000. Inflation that began in January 2000 (BGVN 25:03) peaked in early April. By mid-April the water-tube tiltmeter 4 km SW of the summit detected a 2.5 µrad decrease in tilt. By the end of April the tilt had recovered 1.5 µrad. Emissions from both the summit craters, Main and Southern, consisted of gentle releases of light to moderate volumes of white vapor. Seismicity remained low with the number of events ranging from 500 to 1,200 events a day. Seismic amplitude measurements were steady at background levels.
During May, Manam continued to produce varying amounts of white vapor from both craters. Rabaul Volcanic Observatory (RVO) characterized the seismicity as normal. Tiltmeter readings showed no particular trend.
Throughout June, Main Crater released light to moderate volumes of white vapor. However, during 3-4 June, Southern crater increased in activity.
At 1235 on 3 June, an explosive eruption produced thick, dark ash clouds and produced fine-ash and scoria deposits at Yassa village, W of the summit. The ash clouds reached an altitude of 1-1.2 km. The initial explosion was followed by light to moderate release of ash. At 0004 on 4 June, booming sounds lasting 1-2 minutes were accompanied by the ejection of glowing lava fragments. These fragments fell in the SW valley and had free fall times (FFT) of 5-10 s. Some weak to low fluctuating night time glows were visible during the intervals between lava fragment ejections. Prior to and after the events of 3-4 June, Southern crater produced light amounts of white vapor.
Although there were no water-tiltmeter readings after 19 June, the values taken 4 km S of the crater showed an inflation of 10 µrad from 1-19 June. Since December 1999, there has been an overall inflation of 16 µrad. There were no seismic readings during 1-10 June. Low-level seismicity the remainder of the month had counts ranging from 600-1,360 a day. Seismic amplitude measurements were relatively steady at normal background levels.
Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.
Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, D. Lolok, K. Mulina, and F. Taranu, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.