Report on Dukono (Indonesia) — June 2004

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 29, no. 6 (June 2004)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Dukono (Indonesia) Despite ongoing volcanism, a paucity of MODVOLC thermal alerts after 2002

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Dukono (Indonesia). In: Wunderman, R (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 29:6. Smithsonian Institution.

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1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

Based on MODVOLC thermal alert data, Coppola and Rothery had previously reported a significant thermal event during 26 August-7 September 2002 (BGVN 28:03). This was the first sign of activity at Dukono since the inception of MODVOLC data in May 2000. Subsequent reports from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and the Darwin VAAC (BGVN 28:06, 28:09, and 28:11) documented ash eruptions in February and June-December 2003.

An updated analysis of MODVOLC data covering the period August 2000-April 2004 confirmed the August-September 2002 event by the addition of thermal alerts from NASA's Aqua satellite (26 August, 6 and 7 September 2002), but found very little sign of activity subsequently throughl the end of April 2004. During the whole period since September 2002 the only thermal alerts were single-pixel events, only slightly above the MODVOLC detection threshold, on 1 March and 10 November 2003. Inspection of raw MODIS data revealed an additional anomaly on 17 November 2003 with an alert ratio slightly below the MODVOLC detection threshold. The scarcity of thermal alerts at Dukono despite recurrent ash eruptions indicated the general invisibility (or small size) of any hot feature at the source, such as an incandescent vent or lava dome.

Data acquisition and analysis. Reports from Diego Coppola and David A. Rothery provided analyses of MODIS thermal alerts during 2001 and 2002 (using the MODVOLC alert-detection algorithm) extracted from the MODIS Thermal Alerts website ( maintained by the University of Hawaii HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts team (BGVN 28:01). Rothery and Charlotte Saunders provided updates to 31 May 2004. MODVOLC data are now routinely available from the Aqua satellite (equator crossing times 0230 and 1430 local time) in addition to the original Terra satellite (equator crossing times 1030 and 2230 local time).

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: David A. Rothery and Charlotte Saunders, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom (Email: