Report on Colima (Mexico) — December 2013
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 38, no. 12 (December 2013)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Colima (Mexico) Episode of lava effusion following the January 2013 sequence of explosions
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Report on Colima (Mexico). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 38:12. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN201312-341040.
19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
As reported in BGVN 38:04,18-months of calm at Volcán de Colima was interrupted by a sequence of intermediate-to-small size Vulcanian explosions in January 2013. This sequence of explosions excavated a 250,000 m3 crater in the 2007-2011 lava dome (figure 102).
|Figure 102. The new crater at Colima that was formed during the January 2013 explosive sequence. Photo was taken on 31 January 2013 during a flight of Civil Protection of Jalisco State. Courtesy of Colima Volcano Observatory.|
Episodes of effusive activity within the new crater were recorded between the explosive events. An infrared image shows fresh magma at the crater base (figure 103).
|Figure 103. Thermal image taken during a flight over Colima on 11 January showing the emergence of fresh high temperature lava. Courtesy of Facultad de Ciencias, University of Colima.|
Figure 104 summarizes the 2013 activity at Colima, indicating three stages. Those stages were defined based on data from seismic (figure 104, A and B), and video (figure 104C) monitoring. The first stage (St. 1) refers to the sequence of explosions described in (BGVN 38:04). On 15 February and the end of March (St. 2), video observations indicated continued gradual lava dome growth in the new crater. The dome increased in height at the rate of ~1 m/day. As a result, during this interval the maximum elevation of the volcano increased from 3,843 m to 3,874 m. The dome continued to fill the crater through the end of March (figure 105). During April-November 2013 the third stage (St. 3) of significant dome growth stopped.
The February-March lava dome growth was accompanied by an increase in the frequency and energy of the small explosions (figures 104A and 104B). Once the dome filled the crater a small lava flow traveled toward the W (figure 105). Due to the steepness of this flank, much of the fresh material descended as rockfalls, whose frequency increased from April (figure 104A).
During the third stage, the daily number of small explosions and rockfalls was quite stable. This stage was associated with the occurrence of 14 lahars that began with the rainy season being registered between 11 June and 8 October 2013 descending the flanks of the volcano (figure 106). The largest, lasting around 6 hours, occurred on 16 September 2013, when the Pacific coast was affected by tropical cyclone Manuel.
|Figure 106. Block-rich front of the 11 June 2013 lahar recorded along the Montegrande ravine by the lahar monitoring station located 5.8 km S of the crater. Courtesy of Centro de Geociencias, UNAM.|
2014. On 21 January 2014 the Washington VAAC first reported scattered ash emissions drifting S at 4.9 km altitude followed by a second and third emission that drifted SSW and S , respectively. Smaller ash emissions were noted throughout the following weeks. For example, Washington VAAC reported that on 7 February a small emission rose and drifted E then SE, followed by a later one the same day that drifted SE.
From data provided by the Mexico Meteorological Watch Office, on 28 February an ash emission drifted 15 km SE at altitudes up to 4.6 km, and the following day, on 1 March, two emissions were reported drifting NNW, followed by three other plumes later the same day.
The Washington VACC continued to report on activity as seen from satellite imaging, noting another emission on 6 March that drifted NE before dissipating and ; an emission on 12 March that drifted 25 km NNE before similarly dissipating; and a 19 March emission, which rose to 4.6 km and drifted E before dissipating 30 km from the source. A separate later plume followed on 22 March and drifted N.
Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.
Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico de la Universidad de Colima (Colima Volcanological Observatory), Calle Manuel Payno, 209 Colima, Col., 28045 Mexico (URL: http://www.ucol.mex/volc/); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima; and Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/).