Report on Sheveluch (Russia) — November 2019
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 44, no. 11 (November 2019)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke. Research and preparation by Paul Berger.
Sheveluch (Russia) Frequent ash explosions and lava dome growth continue through October 2019
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2019. Report on Sheveluch (Russia) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 44:11. Smithsonian Institution.
56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
After a lull in activity at Sheveluch, levels intensified again in mid-December 2018 and remained high through April 2019, with lava dome growth, strong explosions that produced ash plumes, incandescent lava flows, hot avalanches, numerous thermal anomalies, and strong fumarolic activity (BGVN 44:05). This report summarizes activity between May and October 2019. The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT).
According to KVERT, explosive activity continued to generate ash plumes during May-October 2019 (table 13). Strong fumarolic activity, incandescence and growth of the lava dome, and hot avalanches accompanied this process. There were also reports of plumes caused by re-suspended ash rather than new explosions. Plumes frequently extended a few hundred kilometers downwind, with the longest ones remaining visible in imagery as much as 1,000-1,400 km away. One of the larger explosions, on 1 October (figure 52), also generated a pyroclastic flow. Some of the stronger explosions sent the plume to an altitude of 10-11 km, or more than 7 km above the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) throughout the reporting period, except for several hours on 6 October when it was raised to Red (the highest level).
|Dates||Plume altitude (km)||Drift Distance and Direction||Remarks|
|30 Apr-02 May 2019||--||200 km SE||Resuspended ash.|
|03-10 May 2019||--||50 km SE, SW||Gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash.|
|13 May 2019||--||16 km SE||Resuspended ash.|
|11-12 Jun 2019||--||60 km WNW||Explosions and hot avalanches seen in video and satellite images.|
|24, 27 Jun 2019||4.5 E, W||Ash plumes.|
|05 Aug 2019||2.5||40 km NW||Diffuse ash plume.|
|25 Aug 2019||4.5-5||500 km NW||Ash plumes.|
|29 Aug 2019||10||Various; 550 km N||Explosions at 1510 produced ash plumes.|
|30 Aug 2019||7-7.5||50 km SSE||Explosions at 1957 produced ash plumes.|
|03 Sep 2019||5.5||SE||--|
|02-03, 05 Sep 2019||10||660 km SE||Ash plumes seen in satellite images.|
|05 Sep 2019||--||--||Resuspended ash.|
|11-12 Sep 2019||--||250 km ESE||Resuspended ash plumes. Satellite and webcam data recorded ash emissions and a gas-and-steam plume with some ash drifting 50 km ESE on 12 Sep.|
|12-15, 17, 19 Sep 2019||--||200 km SW, SE, NE||Ash plumes.|
|20-21, 23, 26 Sep 2019||7||580 km ESE||Explosions produced ash plumes.|
|29 Sep, 01-02 Oct 2019||9||1,400 km SE, E||Explosions produced ash plumes. Notable pyroclastic flow traveled SE on 1 Oct.|
|04 Oct 2019||--||170 km E||Resuspended ash.|
|06 Oct 2019||10||430 km NE; 1,080 km ENE||Ash plumes. Aviation Color Code raised to Red for several hours.|
|08 Oct 2019||--||170 km E||Resuspended ash.|
|06, 09 Oct 2019||6.5-11||1,100 km E||--|
|11-13, 15 Oct 2019||6.5-7||620 km E, SE||Explosions produced ash plumes.|
|16-17 Oct 2019||--||125 km E||Resuspended ash.|
|19-20 Oct 2019||--||110 km SE||Resuspended ash.|
|21 Oct 2019||10-11||1,300 km SE||Explosions produced ash plumes.|
|Figure 52. An explosion of Sheveluch on 1 October 2019. A pyroclastic flow was also reported by KVERT this day. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.|
Numerous thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were observed every month. Consistent with this, the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system recorded thermal anomalies almost daily. According to KVERT, a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during the entire reporting period, although cloudy weather sometimes obscured observations.
Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.
Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).