Report on Veniaminof (United States) — March 1984

Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 9, no. 3 (March 1984)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland

Veniaminof (United States) Vapor plumes and incandescence

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1984. Report on Veniaminof (United States). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 9:3. Smithsonian Institution.

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United States

56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2507 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

Eruptive activity continued through mid-March, but declined late March-early April. Weather clouds obscured the volcano for most of March; however, Perryville residents were able to make the following observations. On 7, 11, 14, and 16 March, a vapor plume rose above the intra-caldera cone. Glow was seen over the summit of the volcano on the evenings of the 7th and 16th. Between 1600 and 1700 on 22 March, an eruption cloud with a small amount of ash rose to approximately 4 km altitude, and an earthquake was felt in Perryville at 2345 that evening. A large vapor cloud was observed on the 23rd and a dark ash cloud was "glimpsed" on the 28th. Another vapor plume rose about 60 m above the intra-caldera cone on 30 March. Weather clouds continued to obscure the volcano through 8 April. Perryville residents observed a vapor cloud above the summit during the day 9-10 April but no incandescence during the evening. During an overflight by USGS personnel on 11 April, a vapor cloud containing little or no tephra rose about 90 m from the summit area of the intra-caldera cone. No incandescent ejecta was observed. The lava flow did not appear to be advancing and it was covered by a light dusting of snow. Vapor was emitted from the edges and top of the lava flow.

Geologic Background. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which reaches an elevation of 2156 m and rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.

Information Contacts: M.E. Yount, USGS, Anchorage.