Report on Makian (Indonesia) — October 1988
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 10 (October 1988)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Makian (Indonesia) Satellite data on July plumes
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1988. Report on Makian (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 13:10. Smithsonian Institution. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198810-268070.
0.32°N, 127.4°E; summit elev. 1357 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
New data from Japan's GMS satellite . . . . An image at 1200 on 29 July (figure 1) shows a dense plume with a surface temperature of -70°C (figure 2), suggesting an altitude of 15.2 km (table 1).
Table 1. Analysis of GMS satellite data by Yosihiro Sawada, with parameters of the 29 July Makian plume and possible eruption clouds on 31 July 1988.[Skip text table]
Date Local Attached Width Length Direction Surface Height time to volcano? (km) (km) Temp. (km) 29 July 1200 yes 60 110 SW -70°C 15.2 1500 no 90 310 SW-W -61°C 13.5 1800 no 80 430 SW-W -50°C 12.1 2100 no 90 450 SW-W -- -- 31 July 0300 no 30 130 SW-W -49°C 11.9 0600 no 20 60 SW -20°C 7.6 0900 yes 50 210 SW -14°C 6.8 1200 yes 40 130 W-SW -73°C 15.6
By the time of the next image, three hours later, the plume was detached from the volcano and was noticeably more diffuse. Possible volcanic plumes were also detected on GMS imagery returned 31 July (figures 1 and 3), but no ground reports of large eruption clouds are known at those times.
|Figure 3. Temperature gradients in the clouds shown in figure 1. Makian is marked by a solid triangle. Courtesy of Y. Sawada.|
Geologic Background. Makian volcano forms a 10-km-wide island near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off the west coast of Halmahera and has been the source of infrequent, but violent eruptions that have devastated villages on the island. The large 1.5-km-wide summit crater, containing a small lake on the NE side, gives the peak a flat-topped profile. Two prominent valleys extend to the coast from the summit crater on the north and east sides. Four parasitic cones are found on the western flanks. Eruption have been recorded since about 1550; major eruptions in 1646, 1760-61, 1861-62, 1890, and 1988 caused extensive damage and many fatalities.
Information Contacts: Y. Sawada, JMA.