Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador) — 29 August-4 September 2012
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 August-4 September 2012
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2012. Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 August-4 September 2012. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
IG reported that during 29 August-4 September visual observations of Tungurahua were often limited due to cloud cover. Moderate seismicity was detected during 29-30 August and a few earthquakes were felt by residents. On 30 August steam plumes with low ash content rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W. Ashfall was reported in Manzano (8 km SW) and Choglontus. Incandescent blocks rolled 300 m down the flanks, roaring was heard, and structures in nearby areas vibrated. During 31 Auguts-1 September steam plumes rose 300-500 m and drifted W. Glow emanated from the crater and incandescent blocks rolled down the flanks, up to 500 m on 31 August. Ashfall was reported in Manzano. An explosion produced a plume that rose 300 m on 3 September, and a steam plume drifted W on 4 September.
Geologic Background. Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater, accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.