Report on Akan (Japan) — 28 November-4 December 2018
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 November-4 December 2018
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2018. Report on Akan (Japan). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 November-4 December 2018. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
43.384°N, 144.013°E; summit elev. 1499 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
JMA reported that the number of earthquakes with shallow hypocenters and epicenters near Ponmachineshiri Crater, a summit crater of Me-Akan (also known as Meakan-dake, which means Meakan Peak) of the Akan volcanic complex, increased at 1800 on 20 November. Another seismic increase occurred on 23 November, in number and amplitude of events, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a 5-level scale).
Geologic Background. Akan is a 13 x 24 km caldera located immediately SW of Kussharo caldera. The elongated, irregular outline of the caldera rim reflects its incremental formation during major explosive eruptions from the early to mid-Pleistocene. Growth of four post-caldera stratovolcanoes, three at the SW end of the caldera and the other at the NE side, has restricted the size of the caldera lake. Conical Oakandake was frequently active during the Holocene. The 1-km-wide Nakamachineshiri crater of Meakandake was formed during a major pumice-and-scoria eruption about 13,500 years ago. Within the Akan volcanic complex, only the Meakandake group, east of Lake Akan, has been historically active, producing mild phreatic eruptions since the beginning of the 19th century. Meakandake is composed of nine overlapping cones. The main cone of Meakandake proper has a triple crater at its summit. Historical eruptions at Meakandake have consisted of minor phreatic explosions, but four major magmatic eruptions including pyroclastic flows have occurred during the Holocene.