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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 37.92°S
  • 71.45°W

  • 3164 m
    10378 ft

  • 357091
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

28 December-3 January 2012

Based on a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that the top of an ash plume from Callaqui was at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 January. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery under clear skies.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)

Index of Weekly Reports

2011: December
2009: January
2008: February

Weekly Reports

28 December-3 January 2012

Based on a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that the top of an ash plume from Callaqui was at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 January. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery under clear skies.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)

21 January-27 January 2009

Based on a pilot observation and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Callaqui drifted NE on 22 January. The VAAC also reported that an ash plume from Nevados de Chillán, a nearby volcano 120 km N, drifted SE on 21 and 22 January.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)

13 February-19 February 2008

According to news articles on 14 February, scientists from the Universidad de Concepción will install instruments to monitor Callaqui. Local residents reported feeling earthquakes and hearing constant rumbling noises during the previous few weeks.

Source: El Mostrador

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

10/1980 (Ref 1985) Ash emission from summit

03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Steam jetting from fumaroles

03/1997 (BGVN 22:03) Continuous fumarolic activity at main vent and upper S flank

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) Stable during June-August 1997

Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

10/1980 (Ref 1985) Ash emission from summit

A small phreatic ash emission from its summit was observed in October 1980.

Reference. Moreno, H., 1985, Personal communication.

03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Steam jetting from fumaroles

Steam jets from that rose 300-400 m from fumaroles on the SE flank, 200 m below the summit, were observed during dry weather at about noon on 9 and 16 March.

Information Contacts: J. Naranjo, SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago; H. Moreno, Univ de Chile.

03/1997 (BGVN 22:03) Continuous fumarolic activity at main vent and upper S flank

A late-March overflight made after a prolonged dry season enabled views of Callaqui with relatively low snow levels. At the time of the overflight, the main vent at the summit showed vigorous steam emissions and sulfur deposits were noted around the two main fumarolic vents. Similar levels of fumarolic activity were noted over the preceding three weeks. Both the south side of the summit and the uppermost southern flank, at the head of the glaciers feeding the Río Malla, had continuous fumarolic activity. Rocks in these areas were highly altered. Emissions from the southern flank were more diffuse.

Information Contacts: Jose Antonio Naranjo, Servicio Nacional de Geología e Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Av. Santa María 0104, Casilla 10465, Santiago, Chile (Email:; Hugo Moreno Roa, Observatorío Volcanogía de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Manantial 1710-Carmino del Alba, Temuco, Chile (Email:; Simon R. Young, British Geological Survey (BGS), Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, United Kingdom (Email:

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) Stable during June-August 1997

A report received in early December noted stable activity during June through August 1997. The same report also described a new seismic system and some initial tremor and seismic data. The Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations sponsored a project that began in August 1997; this enabled scientists to study Callaqui under the auspices of the Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) of SERNAGEOMIN and the Oficina Nacional de Emergencia del Ministerio del Interior.

The new seismic system includes a vertical-axis, 1-second-period geophone, a digitizer, and a computer. Upon collection, signals are telemetered and processesed by OVDAS in Temuco.

During August-October the tremor had characteristic frequency ranges from 0.9-1.6 Hz. For August-October the number of daily earthquakes averaged 0.96, 0.26, and 0.53 events/day. Seismic-amplitude averages (RSAM values) during the 3 months remained stable at 2.5.

Information Contacts: Gustavo Fuentealba C., Paola Peña S., and Klaus Bataille, Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Manantial 1710-Carmino del Alba, Temuco, Chile (Email:

The late-Pleistocene to Holocene Callaqui stratovolcano has a profile of an overturned canoe due to its construction along an 11-km-long, SW-NE fissure above a 1.2-0.3 million year old Pleistocene edifice. The ice-capped, 3164-m-high basaltic-andesite Callaqui volcano contains well-preserved volcanic cones and lava flows, which have traveled up to 14 km. Small craters 100-500 m in diameter are primarily found along a fissure extending down the SW flank. Intense solfataric activity occurs at the southern part of the summit; in 1966 and 1978, red glow was observed in fumarolic areas (Moreno 1985, pers. comm.). Periods of intense fumarolic activity have dominated at Callaqui, and few historical eruptions are known. An explosive eruption was reported in 1751, there were uncertain accounts of eruptions in 1864 and 1937, and a small phreatic ash emission was noted in 1980.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 2012 Jan 2 ] [ 2012 Jan 2 ] Uncertain    
[ 2009 Jan 22 ] [ 2009 Jan 22 ] Uncertain    
1980 Oct 1980 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1937 Sep 18 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1872 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1864 Oct ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1751 Dec 31 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Callaquen | Collaqui | Cordillera Blanca | Niullihuelco | Llagdeguin | Ketrudehuin | Unalavquen

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Epun Crater
Nireco Crater
Pichimalla Crater
Quillaicahue Crater
The ice-capped, 3164-m-high Callaqui volcano has an elongated profile due to construction along an 11-km-long, SW-NE-trending fissure. As many as 16 well-preserved volcanic craters, the majority of which are on the SW flank, have erupted along this fissure and produced lava flows that mantle the volcano's flanks. Two large, ice-filled craters are located at the summit, and intense solfataric activity occurs on the southern side.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The broad glacier-covered summit of Volcán Copahue along the Chile/Argentina border is seen from the SE with conical Callaqui volcano in the distance. The lake-filled active crater of Copahue (lower center) has been the site of historical eruptions. The composite cone was constructed along the Chile/Argentina border within an 8-km-wide caldera formed 0.6 million years ago. The eastern summit crater is part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters that cuts across the western rim of the caldera.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán, 1992 (University of Chile).
The small snow-free crater at the upper right, above and to the right of the light-colored area just right of the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper left) is Trocon volcano. Trocon lies in Argentina NE of the Caldera del Agrio (lower right), whose floor contains several lakes, including the U-shaped one at lower right near the SE caldera wall. Trocon is a lava-dome complex with two summit craters and a pyroclastic cone. Snow-covered Callaqui volcano (bottom left-center) overlies the western rim of Caldera del Agrio.

NASA Space Station image ISS006-E-39998, 2003 (

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1972. Distribucion del volcanismo activo de Chile y la reciente erupcion del Volcan Villarrica. Instituto Geog Militar Chile, O/T 3491.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Moreno H, 1974. Airplane flight over active volcanoes of central-south Chile. Internatl Symp Volc Andean & Antarctic Volc Problems Guidebook, Excur D-3, 56 p.

Moreno H, 1992. Estudio preliminar del riesgo volcanico del area de Ralco. Proyecto Ralco, INGENDESA, Chile, unpublished rpt.

Moreno H, 1985. . (pers. comm.).

Moreno H, Naranjo J A, 1991. The southern Andes volcanoes (33°-41° 30' S), Chile. 6th Geol Cong Chile, Excur PC-3, 26 p.

Stone J B, Ingerson E, 1934. Some volcanoes of Southern Chile. Amer J Sci, 28: 269-287.

Volcano Types

Scoria cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Callaqui Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.