Semeru

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  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Stratovolcano
  • 2012 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.108°S
  • 112.92°E

  • 3676 m
    12057 ft

  • 263300
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

16 October-22 October 2013

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 October a pilot saw a low-level ash plume from Semeru. Ash was not identified in satellite images.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: October
2012: February | May
2010: February | November
2009: March | July
2008: April | May | June | July | August | September | October
2007: February | May | June | August | September | October
2006: March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2005: May
2004: April | May | June | July | August
2003: January | February | March | April | May | July | August | September | October | December
2002: March | April | June | July | August | September | December
2001: February | March | April | May | July | September | October
2000: December


16 October-22 October 2013

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 October a pilot saw a low-level ash plume from Semeru. Ash was not identified in satellite images.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2012

CVGHM reported that during 1-29 February multiple pyroclastic flows from Semeru traveled 500 and 2,500 m into the Besuk Kembar and Besuk Kobokan rivers (on the S flank), respectively. During 1 February-30 April dense gray-to-white plumes rose 100-500 m above Jongring Seloko crater and drifted W and N. Incandescence was visible up to 50 m above the crater during 1 February-31 March. Seismicity decreased from March to April. Observations indicated that the lava dome grew in April. On 2 May CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and reminded the public not to approach the crater within a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


1 February-7 February 2012

On 3 February, CVGHM reported that from 29 December 2011 to 2 February 2012 seismicity increased at Semeru, and dense white and gray plumes rose as high as 600 m above the Jonggring Seloko crater. During the month of January crater incandescence was observed and avalanches carried incandescent material 200-400 m away from the crater. On 2 February a large explosion was reported and incandescent material was ejected 2.5 km from the crater. Based on the seismic activity and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 2 February.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 November-23 November 2010

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-19 November ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-110 N and NW. Sulfur dioxide gas concentrations were detected 75 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2010

On 4 November, CVGHM reported that from August to October seismic activity at Semeru had increased, and "smoke" and occasional gas plumes rose 400-500 m above the crater. During September incandescent avalanches traveled 400 m SE into the Besuk Kembar drainage on three occasions. Incandescence from the crater was observed in October. Incandescent avalanches traveled 600 m E into Besuk Kembar on 2 November and 4 km into the Besuk Kembar and Besuk Bang (SSE) drainages on 4 November. CVGHM noted that the lava dome in the Jonggring Saloko crater was growing. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 February-2 March 2010

On 1 March, CVGHM reported that although inclement weather often prevented observations of Semeru during November 2009-February 2010, "smoke" was often seen rising 50-500 m above the Jonggring Seloko crater. During 25-28 February, incandescent rock avalanches traveled as far as 750 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


15 July-21 July 2009

CVGHM reported that on 15 March an eruption from Semeru produced a white-and-gray plume that rose 600 m above the crater. White plumes and ash eruptions gradually ceased and seismicity decreased. From 5 May until the end of June, fog prevented visual observations. On 16 July, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 March-17 March 2009

Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 March an eruption from Semeru produced a plume to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 March-10 March 2009

On 6 March, CVGHM reported that an ash eruption from Semeru was characterized by increased seismicity and booming sounds from the Jonggring Seloko crater; fog prevented visual observations. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 March a possible plume rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 October a plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 September a plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 September-9 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 September ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2008

Based on pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level plume from Semeru was present on 28 August. A pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW on 31 August.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2008

Based on pilot reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 August ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2008

Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 August ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,100 ft) a.s.l. and that incandescent material was ejected from the crater. CVGHM indicated that the activity was normal; the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2008

CVGHM reported on 5 August that ash plumes from Semeru rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,100-14,100 ft) a.s.l. and were occasionally accompanied by ejected incandescent tephra. Based on visual observations and instrumental data, the Alert level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


23 July-29 July 2008

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 July an ash plume at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. was spotted by a pilot in the vicinity of Semeru. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2008

Based on pilot reports and observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-9 July ash plumes from Semeru rose to altitudes of 4.9-7.6 km (16,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 June-10 June 2008

CVGHM reported that pyroclastic flows and rockfall avalanches from Semeru detected by the seismic network declined in frequency during 22 May-3 June. On 22 May, four pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum distance of 2.5 km from the active crater. Visual observations of smaller rockfalls detected during the rest of the reporting period were inhibited by fog, but were observed to travel 200-300 m from the active crater. Based on visual observations and the decline in seismic activity, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 June.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 May-27 May 2008

CVGHM reported that during 15, 17-19, and 21 May, ash plumes rose from Semeru's summit, rockfalls descended the flanks, and multiple pyroclastic flows traveled 500-3000 m from the active crater. On 21 May, incandescent material was propelled from the summit. Based on visual observations and increased seismicity, CVGHM raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The community was advised not to go within 4 km from the summit on the SE flank.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 April-22 April 2008

Based on pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that a plume from Semeru rose vertically to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 April.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 October-6 November 2007

Based on reports from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that an unconfirmed eruption from Semeru was heard from 17 km away on 31 October. An eruption plume was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 September-25 September 2007

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. on 22 September. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 August-7 August 2007

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume, possibly from Semeru, rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 August. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 June-26 June 2007

Based on visual observations, CVGHM reported that during 18-25 June multiple ash explosions from Semeru produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 June-12 June 2007

The Darwin VAAC reported that a pilot observed an ash plume over the summit of Semeru on 12 June. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

Based on a pilot report and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported diffuse ash plumes from Semeru at an altitude of 4.6 (15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 May. The plumes drifted W. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2007

Based on satellite imagery and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported diffuse ash plumes from Semeru at an altitude of 4.6 (15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 3-5 May. The plumes drifted SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 February-13 February 2007

Based on a news report, eruption plumes from Semeru drifted E on 10 and 11 February. Ashfall was reported from areas including the town of Lumajang, about 35 km E.

Source: Agence France-Presse (AFP)


20 December-26 December 2006

The Darwin VAAC reported that a plume from Semeru was visible on satellite imagery on 21 December at an altitude of 4.3 (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 November-28 November 2006

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 November an ash plume from Semeru reached 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. On 24 November, CVGHM reported an eruption plume to an altitude of 4.4 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Incandescent material fell to the ground in all directions within a 200 m radius from the center of the plume.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 October-31 October 2006

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 and 26 October, an eruption plume from Semeru reached 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 30 October, ash-and-steam emissions were detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 October-24 October 2006

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 October, an eruption plume from Semeru reached 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 September-26 September 2006

Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC issued multiple aviation ash advisories for Semeru during 20-21 September. Plumes were initially reported to be near 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW. The later reports noted a plume at 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. extending about 90 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 September-19 September 2006

Based on pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption plume from Semeru reached 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 15 September.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 August-29 August 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, ash plumes from Semeru were visible on satellite imagery on 25 August.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 August-8 August 2006

Eruption plumes from Semeru were visible on satellite imagery on 2 August. They reached a maximum altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 July-1 August 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, on 24-25 and 31 July small plumes from Semeru were visible on satellite imagery and reached unknown altitudes.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 July-25 July 2006

Eruption plumes from Semeru were visible on satellite imagery on 18, 21, and 24 July and reached a maximum altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 July-18 July 2006

Eruption plumes from Semeru were visible on satellite imagery on 14 July drifting SE at unknown altitudes. On 17 July plumes reached altitudes of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 July-11 July 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, an ash plume from Semeru reached a maximum altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 July. The plume was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 June-4 July 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, on 29 June a small plume from Semeru that was visible on satellite imagery drifted SE at an unknown altitude.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 June-27 June 2006

Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Semeru reached 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 June.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 June-20 June 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported that ash plumes from Semeru on 14 June reached altitudes of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Small ash plumes were detected on satellite imagery on 15, 17, and 18 June.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 June-13 June 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, satellite imagery showed small ash plumes from Semeru on 6 and 12 June and minor ash-and-steam plumes on 11 and 13 June, all at unknown altitudes.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 May-6 June 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported multiple minor eruptions from Semeru on 4 June. Small ash plumes were detected on satellite imagery on 5-6 June.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 May-16 May 2006

An ash plume from Semeru at a height of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. was observed on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 April-25 April 2006

Based on information from a significant meteorological forecast (SIGMET), the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an eruption at Semeru generated a plume that rose to ~4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 March-14 March 2006

Based on information from the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM formerly DVGHM), the Darwin VAAC reported that "ash rain" from Semeru was reported near the volcano. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 May-31 May 2005

The Darwin VAAC received a report that a small plume was visible above Semeru's summit on 25 May. The Darwin VAAC received a report that a small plume was visible above Semeru's summit on 25 May.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 May-24 May 2005

Satellite imagery on 21 May showed a thin plume from Semeru at a height of ~4.6 km (~15,000 ft) a.s.l. extending to the S and later SSE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2004

On 25 August, a thin plume emitted from Semeru was visible on satellite imagery extending WSW. No ash was visible on the satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 August-24 August 2004

On 24 August a thin plume emitted from Semeru was visible on satellite imagery extending to the WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 August-17 August 2004

A pilot reported to the Darwin VAAC that on 10 August ash from Semeru was at a height of ~6.1 km a.s.l. According to a news article, people were temporarily banned from climbing the volcano.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation


4 August-10 August 2004

During 5-10 August, pilots reported to the Darwin VAAC that several ash clouds were emitted from Semeru. The highest rising cloud reached ~7.6 km a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery. The Alert Level at Semeru was at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 July-20 July 2004

A pilot reported an ash plume from Semeru on 18 July at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. drifting NW. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 June-22 June 2004

Based on information from a pilot's report, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 June an ash cloud from Semeru was visible at a height of ~6 km a.s.l., extending ~40 km E. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery. The Darwin VAAC reported that DVGHM listed the volcano at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 June-8 June 2004

An ash plume from Semeru was reported on 4 June at ~4.5 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2004

The Darwin VAAC reported that a thin ash plume from Semeru was visible on satellite imagery on 23 May around 0625. The plume reached a height of ~4.3 km a.s.l. and extended ~110 km SSE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 April-27 April 2004

The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Semeru was visible on satellite imagery on 21 April. The plume rose to ~4.6 km a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 April-20 April 2004

The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Semeru were visible in satellite imagery on 18 and 20 April. The plumes reached heights of ~4.5 km and extended ~90 km NW and ~75 km SSE, respectively.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2003

Satellite imagery on 2 December at 1728 showed an ash plume from Semeru at ~4 km a.s.l. that extended ~55 km WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 October-4 November 2003

During October, ash explosions at Semeru continued to produce low-level plumes and seismicity was dominated by hundreds of explosion earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 October-14 October 2003

During 1-28 September, volcanic activity at Semeru continued at relatively high levels. Several ash explosions produced plumes to 400-500 m above the volcano. Seismicity was dominated by as many as 735 explosion earthquakes per week. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 September-9 September 2003

An ash plume emitted from Semeru on 9 September rose to ~7.3 km a.s.l. and drifted S. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2003

During 11-17 August, volcanic activity at Semeru continued at relatively high levels. Explosions produced ash columns that rose to 400 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by 550 explosion earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 August-19 August 2003

A faint ash plume from Semeru was visible on satellite imagery on 13 August, extending ~75 km E of the summit.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2003

Thin ash plumes from Semeru were visible on satellite imagery on 8 and 9 August. On 9 August the plume extended ~40 km SW of the volcano.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2003

Based on information from an aircraft report, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume emitted from Semeru rose to ~4.5 km a.s.l. on 31 July at 1120. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 July-22 July 2003

An ash cloud from Semeru was visible on satellite imagery on 21 July at 2316 extending ~75 km to the WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2003

During 2-29 June, activity continued at high levels at Semeru. Several explosions occurred during the report period, with the highest ash plumes rising to a height of ~600 m. Seismicity was dominated by hundreds of explosion events per week. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 May-3 June 2003

Plumes emitted from Semeru were visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~6 km a.s.l. on 29 May at 0838 drifting NW, and on 2 June at 0625 drifting SSE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2003

Volcanic and seismic activity at Semeru continued at relatively high levels during 12-18 May. Several small ash explosions rose to low levels above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by 730 explosion events. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 April-22 April 2003

During the week of 16-22 April, Semeru was continually active. A white-gray ash plume@ rose 400-500 m over the summit. Seismic signals interpreted as pyroclastic flows were recorded multiple times during the week. One pyroclastic flow on 18 April traveled into several local drainages, reaching lengths of ~2.5 and ~3.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


9 April-15 April 2003

Volcanic activity remained at relatively high levels at Semeru during 31 March to 6 April. "White-gray ash plumes" rose 400-600 m above the summit and seismicity was dominated by 738 explosion events. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported seeing ash ~2.5 km above Semeru on 15 April at 1038. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. The Alert Level at Semeru remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 April-8 April 2003

Seismic and volcanic activity continued at relatively high levels at Semeru during 24-30 March, with "gray ash plumes" rising to low levels, pyroclastic-flow activity, and several explosions. On 27 March a pyroclastic flow travelled around 3,750 m toward Bang River. During the week, seismicity was dominated by 794 explosion events. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 March-1 April 2003

Seismic and volcanic activity continued at relatively high levels at Semeru during 17-23 March, with "gray ash plumes" rising 300-400 m above the summit, and several pyroclastic flows traveling toward Bang River to runout distances of around 500 m. Seismicity was dominated by 563 explosion events. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 March-25 March 2003

During 10-16 March at Semeru, "white-gray ash plumes" rose to low levels and several pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4 km down Bang River. Seismicity was dominated by 550 explosion earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 March-18 March 2003

During 3-9 March, volcanism at Semeru remained at high levels. "White-gray ash plume[s]" rose to low levels above the summit and several "pyroclastic avalanches" traveled 200-2,000 m into Besuk Kembar River. Seismicity was dominated by 794 explosion earthquakes. The Alert Level at Semeru remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 March-11 March 2003

During 24 February to 2 March, volcanism at Semeru remained at high levels. "White-gray ash plumes" were observed rising 300-400 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by 629 explosion earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 February-11 February 2003

During 3-9 February, volcanic activity remained at high levels at Semeru, with ash plumes rising 300-400 m above the summit. On 7 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 2-4 km into the Besuk Bang River. Seismicity during the report period was dominated by 777 explosion events and 14 pyroclastic flows were recorded. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 January-28 January 2003

During 13-26 January volcanic activity remained at relatively high levels at Semeru, with ash plumes rising 400-600 m above the summit. On 19 and 23-24 January incandescent lava avalanches traveled ~500 m down Besuk Kembar River. Semeru was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 January-14 January 2003

Relatively high volcanic and seismic activity continued at Semeru during 1-12 January. Several explosions sent ash columns to 700 m above the crater. Lava avalanches sent material up to 750 m from the crater rim and a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km E to the Besuk Kembar River. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 December-6 January 2003

Volcanic and seismic activity were relatively high at Semeru during 17-30 December. During the report period the most notable seismically recorded events were 1,085 explosions, 49 lava avalanches, 6 pyroclastic flows, and 3 floods/lahars. Explosions sent ash plumes to 400 m above Jonggring Seloko crater. On 25 December a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km into the Besuk Kembar River. On 29 December during 1700-2015, a lahar traveled along the Besuk Kembar River relatively close to Supit village. Early that morning the residents of Supit were evacuated. On 30 December pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km toward the Besuk Kembar River at 0720, and at 1000 one traveled 4 km toward Supit village. The Alert Level at Semeru remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 December-30 December 2002

During 9-22 December, volcanic and seismic activity remained above normal levels at Semeru. Ash columns rose 400-500 m above the volcano, and lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows were seismically recorded. The Alert Level was at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). According to news articles, the emission of lava and hot gas caused authorities to ban all recreational activity at Semeru beginning on 22 December.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, News.com.au - News Limited, Channelnewsasia.com


18 September-24 September 2002

Ash clouds were observed at Semeru rising to ~7.6 a.s.l. on 22 September at 1453 and on 23 September at 1700. The September 23rd cloud drifted SW. Neither cloud was visible on satellite imagery due to meteorological clouds in the area.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 September-17 September 2002

On 8 September at 1947 an ash explosion at Semeru was accompanied by ejected incandescent material. The material traveled 150 m E to the upper portion of the Kembar River. During 2-8 September, seismicity was dominated by explosion earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 August-27 August 2002

During 5-18 August, volcanic and seismic activity at Semeru remained at higher-than-normal levels. On 6 August a lava avalanche traveled ~750 m E toward Besuk Kembar River. Seismicity consisted of tectonic, explosion, and avalanche earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


31 July-6 August 2002

Activity at Semeru remained at a higher level than normal, but thick fog obscured the view. Seismicity increased compared to the previous week and was dominated by 744 explosion earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 July-30 July 2002

When weather conditions were clear during 15-21 July, lava avalanches were observed traveling ~750 m from Semeru's crater rim E toward Besuk Kembar River. Explosions produced ash plumes reaching 300-500 m above the crater. Seismicity was dominated by 670 explosion earthquakes, while the number of other types of earthquakes decreased in comparison to the previous week. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


17 July-23 July 2002

When weather conditions were clear during 8-14 July, lava avalanches were sometimes observed traveling 750 m from Semeru's crater rim E toward Besuk Kembar River. Low-level ash plumes rose above the crater. Seismicity was dominated by 898 explosion earthquakes, while the number of other types of earthquakes decreased. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


10 July-16 July 2002

When weather conditions were clear during 1-7 July, lava avalanches were sometimes observed traveling 750 m from Semeru's crater rim E toward Besuk Kembar River. Seismicity decreased in comparison to the previous week. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 June-2 July 2002

During 17-23 June, seismic and volcanic activity were higher than normal at Semeru. Lava avalanches were observed traveling 750 m E to the Besuk Kembar River. Seismicity included 670 explosion events. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


24 April-30 April 2002

Volcanic activity remained higher than normal at Semeru during 15-21 April. A small plume rose ~400 m above the summit and a "red reflection" was occasionally visible 25 m above the crater rim. Lava avalanches traveled 750 m to the E down Besuk Kembar River. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


20 March-26 March 2002

Volcanic and seismic activity remained high at Semeru during 11-17 March. Observations on 12, 14, and 17 March revealed that a gray plume rose 300-400 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by 444 explosion earthquakes, and there was a decrease in the number of tectonic and deep volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 March-12 March 2002

An increase in volcanic and seismic activity at Semeru during 3-10 March led VSI to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 8 March observers saw an emission rise ~400 m above the volcano, and two pyroclastic flows travel S as far as 2.5 km down the Kembar River. During the report period there was an increase in tectonic and volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 October-9 October 2001

VSI reported that as of 5 October volcanic activity at Semeru was at normal levels, with a plume rising ~600 m above the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 September-2 October 2001

According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported observing an ash plume rising 1-4 km above Semeru on 1 October at 1457. No ash was visible in satellite imagery, possibly due to low-level meteorological clouds obscuring the plume.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 July-24 July 2001

Seismic data revealed that during 9-15 July activity was higher than in the previous week. During this period 687 explosion events were recorded, as well as 57 avalanches, and 11 tectonic earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 July-17 July 2001

Seismic data revealed that during 2-8 July the number of explosions and avalanche earthquakes at Semeru decreased in comparison to the previous week. The volcano was at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 July-10 July 2001

Based on information from pilot reports and the Meteorological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July at 1503 a SE-drifting ash plume rose to ~2.5 km above the volcano. Ground based reports prior to the eruption revealed that each day during 18-24 June Semeru emitted ash to ~0.6 km above the volcano.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2001

Volcanic activity increased at Semeru in comparison to the previous week. Seismographs recorded 759 explosion events (550 last week), 157 avalanche events, and four tectonic earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 April-1 May 2001

Volcanic activity increased at Semeru in comparison to the previous week, with an increase in explosion and deep volcanic earthquakes. Seismographs recorded 550 explosion events, 149 avalanche events, and ten tectonic earthquakes. Gas explosions rose up to 300 m above the volcano. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 April-24 April 2001

VSI reported that during 9-15 April activity at Semeru was higher than normal. Minor explosions that rose 300 m above the volcano were observed during clear weather. Seismographs recorded an increase in seismicity in comparison to the previous week, with 339 explosion events, 51 avalanche events, and three tectonic earthquakes. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


11 April-17 April 2001

There was a significant increase in the number of earthquakes detected at Semeru during 2-9 April following a decrease in volcanic activity during the previous several weeks. Seismographs recorded 28 deep volcanic earthquakes, 305 explosion events, 248 avalanche events, and 3 tectonic earthquakes. Cloudy conditions prohibited visual observations. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 April-10 April 2001

During 27 March-1 April, VSI personnel observed several lava avalanches that traveled to Kembar River valley as far as 750 m S of the summit. No seismic data were available because the seismometers broke on 24 March 2001. They were repaired on 1 April. Semeru is at hazard level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 March-27 March 2001

The summit of the volcano was covered by clouds during 12-18 March, but the seismic record showed increasing activity. Explosion and avalanche earthquakes still dominated seismicity and increased over the past week. There were 349 explosion earthquakes, an increase over the 303 detected during 6-12 March. The count of explosion earthquakes decreased to 259 the week of 19-26 March. Semeru is at hazard level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


28 February-6 March 2001

The VSI reported that a small steam plume rose ~100 m above Semeru's summit and that seismicity was dominated by 702 explosion earthquakes. In addition to the explosion earthquakes, three deep volcanic, 58 avalanche, and five tectonic earthquakes occurred. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 December-19 December 2000

The VSI reported that during 5-11 December fume from Jonggring Seloko crater located in the S sector of Semeru's summit rose up to 600 m above the crater. The seismic record was dominated by explosion earthquakes and the record showed that two pyroclastic flows occurred. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 December-12 December 2000

On 11 December an air report to the Darwin VAAC stated that volcanic ash was observed near Semeru at an altitude of ~7.6 km a.s.l. The Darwin VAAC stated that the activity may have been associated with Semeru, which frequently erupts ash to ~4.5 km. Due to cloudy conditions, any low-level volcanic activity that was occurring at that time was not visible in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1967 Aug 31 2012 Apr (continuing) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Jonggring Seloko
1950 Jul 23 1964 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Jonggring Seloko
1946 Oct 29 1947 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Jonggring Seloko
1946 Feb 1946 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Jonggring Seloko
1945 Jun 12 1945 Jun 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Jonggring Seloko
1941 Sep 21 1942 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations ESE flank (1400-1775 m)
1915 ± 1 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1913 Jun 23 1913 Jun 26 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Jonggring Seloko
1912 Aug 28 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Nov 8 1911 Dec Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1910 Nov 16 1911 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1909 Sep 1910 Mar 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1908 Jan 1908 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Jul 9 (in or before) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Jan 7 1907 Jan 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1905 Aug 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1904 Jan 2 1904 Jan 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1903 Mar 26 1903 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1901 Jan 29 1901 Jan 30 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1900 Mar 29 1900 Apr 11 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1899 Dec Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1899 Aug 11 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1899 Jan 17 1899 Mar 31 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1898 Feb 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1897 Jan 1 1897 Jan 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1896 May 1896 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1895 May 22 1895 Oct 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Dec 11 1894 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Jan 1893 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1892 Mar 1892 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1889 Jan 1891 May 31 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1888 Feb 1888 Oct Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1887 Aug (?) 1887 Oct 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1887 Feb 1887 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1886 Jan 25 1886 Aug 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1884 Dec 10 (?) 1885 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1879 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1878 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1877 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1877 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1872 Oct 23 1872 Oct 23 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1867 Apr 15 ± 5 days 1867 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1866 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1865 Apr 15 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1864 Jul 2 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1860 Apr 1860 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1857 Aug 13 1857 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1856 Sep 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1851 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1849 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1848 Aug 4 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1848 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1845 Jan 1845 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1844 Sep 25 1844 Sep 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1842 Jan 1842 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1838 Jul 1838 Oct 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1836 Aug 3 1836 Aug 5 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1832 Apr 18 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1830 Dec 15 1830 Dec 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1829 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1818 Nov 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Carn S A, 1999. Application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to volcano mapping in the humid tropics: a case study in East Java, Indonesia. Bull Volc, 61: 92-105.

Carn S A, Pyle D M, 2001. Petrology and geochemistry of the Lamongan volcanic field, east Java, Indonesia: primitive Sunda arc magmas in a extensional tectonic setting?. J Petr, 42: 1643-1683.

Mulyadi E, Zaennudin, Wahyudin D, Dana I N, 2000. Guide book for field excursion at Lamongan, Semeru, Bromo-Tengger volcanic complex, East Java, 13-17 July 2000. IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali 2000 Excursion Guide, 28 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Siswowidjoyo S, Sudarsono U, Wirakusumah A D, 1995. The threat of hazards in Semeru volcano, East Java, Indonesia. Eight Regional Conf GEOSEA '95, Manilla, Philippines, 14-18 Feb 1995, 17 p.

Suryo I, 1986. G Semeru. Bull Volc Surv Indonesia, 111: 1-52 (in Indonesian).

Thouret J-C, Lavigne F, Suwa H, Sukatja-Surono B, 2007. Volcanic hazards at Mount Semeru, East Java (Indonesia), with emphasis on lahars. Bull Volc, 70: 221-244.

van Bemmelen R W, 1937. The volcano-tectonic structure of the residency of Malang (eastern Java). Ing Ned-Indie, 4: 159-172.

Wahyudin D, 1990. Volcanology and petrology of Mt. Semeru volcanic complex, East Java - Indonesia. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 131 p.

Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967.