Activity for the week of 22 November-28 November 2000
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
According to the Italy's Volcanoes website, Italian press sources reported that a new burst of seismic activity occurred near Etna's NNW flank on 19-21 November. The earthquakes were thought to be of tectonic origin. During the week mild eruptive activity continued at the Bocca Nuova crater as it has for several weeks, and incandescence was noted at the NE and SE Craters.
Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Italy's Volcanoes, Stromboli On-Line
| 0.171°S, 78.598°W
| Elevation 4784 m
Volcanic activity at Guagua Pichincha was low during the week and seismicity was relatively stable. There was a slight increase in seismicity on 27 November, but there were no indications of dramatic changes in volcanic activity.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| Siau Island (Indonesia)
| 2.781°N, 125.407°E
| Elevation 1797 m
The VSI reported that volcanic activity during 14-20 November was similar to the previous week. A thin ash plume was observed rising ~600 m above the summit from the main crater and crater II. A booming sound was frequently heard from the volcano's summit, and a "red flame" was observed some nights rising ~75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Lava continued to flow through the tube system, entering the sea at the Kamokuna entry. Overall, earthquake activity was low across the island. Volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o vent remained at a moderate level, while tremor and a few shallow earthquakes were detected at Kilauea's summit. The tilt-meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
Volcanic activity continued at a high rate at Popocatepetl, with several small-to-moderate exhalations and eruptions. Remote-sensing and aviation sources provided more details. The Mexico City MWO reported to the Washington VAAC that three exhalations at 0419, 0421, and 0500 on 21 November sent ash to 5-7 km a.s.l. A pilot report and information obtained from GOES-8 imagery revealed that an eruption at 1630 on 22 November produced an ash cloud that reached between 5.5 and 7.6 km a.s.l. Subsequent imagery through 1945 that day showed that there were two ash clouds from the eruption; one rose to ~5.8 km a.s.l., and the other rose to ~7.6 km a.s.l. On 27 November eruptions at 0330 and 1815 sent ash to 6-7 km a.s.l. A pilot report stated that a small eruption occurred sometime prior to 0700 on 28 November, sending ash to ~7 km a.s.l.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
The MVO reported that during 17-24 November volcanism continued at an elevated level, with the continued growth of the lava dome and a significant increase in the number of detected rockfall signals. The latter parameter more than doubled relative to the previous week. On the other hand, the number and energy of long-period earthquakes decreased. The lava spine that was growing on top of the lava dome was estimated at over 1,085 m a.s.l. on 17 November, but partially collapsed sometime during 18-19 November. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows traveled down the notch between the NE and N lobes of the 1995-98 dome. Ash clouds associated with this activity reached no higher than 3 km a.s.l. Towards the end of the week rockfall activity down the E flank decreased. The Washington VAAC reported low-level ash clouds visible during the week; these traveled to the NW and WNW.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
The IG reported that seismicity and explosive activity were at low levels during the week. On 27 November small ash-and-gas discharges reached a maximum altitude of 500 m above the summit.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.