Activity for the week of 6 December-12 December 2000
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
The Washington VAAC reported that a small eruption at approximately 1645 on 9 December sent ash to ~ 4 km a.s.l. (near-summit level). The small ash cloud drifted to the W and NW, was initially dense, and rapidly dissipated so that it was no longer visible on satellite imagery by 2345. Throughout the day, occasional strong hot spots were visible on GOES-8 multi-spectral imagery. According to the Washington VAAC, on the evening of 9 December a volcanologist with INSIVUMEH in Guatemala stated that Fuego had shown increased instability with several explosions. The last reported eruption of Fuego sent ash to ~4 km a.s.l on 29 August 2000.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Eastern Java (Indonesia)
| 7.942°S, 112.95°E
| Elevation 2329 m
According to reports from the VSI and aviation sources, a minor explosion took place on 8 December that sent ash to ~3 km a.s.l.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 0.171°S, 78.598°W
| Elevation 4784 m
Based on seismic measurements, the IG reported that an eruption may have occurred at 0030 on 8 December. Throughout the day seismic activity continued at a decreased rate and no ash was observed. The fact that the Washington VAAC did not detect ash in GOES-8 imagery during cloudless conditions supported the theory that an ash-producing eruption did not occur. The IG stated that the high number of earthquakes indicated that lava dome 9 continued to slowly grow.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
A small flow of lava entered the sea at the Kamokuna entry and no surface activity was observed on Pulama pali (a fault scarp) or the coastal flat. Overall, earthquake activity was low across the island. Tremor and a few shallow earthquakes continued to be detected at Kilauea's summit; the tremor local to the summit that was particularly noticeable last week decreased in intensity on ~8 December. The tilt-meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
A reduction in volcanic activity at Popocatépetl led CENAPRED to reduce the Alert Level on 6 December from Yellow Phase III to Phase II, thus reducing the high-risk zone from 10 to 7 km. The Washington VAAC reported that a small steam-and-ash exhalation sent an ash cloud to ~6.7 km a.s.l. at ~2034 on 6 December. Later in the week they reported that at 1607 on 12 December a massive exhalation of ash and steam sent a cloud to ~ 8.8-10.6 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was visible on CENAPRED's Popocatépetl "Web Cam" and GOES-8 imagery. The eruption ended by approximately 1830 and by 1845 GOES-8 imagery showed that the ash cloud extended 37 km to the NE and was 14 km wide. Imagery through 2315 showed two main areas of ash; the most dense area was at an altitude of ~10.6 km a.s.l., and the other area was between 4.9 and 5.5 km a.s.l. The local airport was alerted to the eruption and as of 12 December the volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase II.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Notimex, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Eastern Java (Indonesia)
| 8.108°S, 112.922°E
| Elevation 3657 m
On 11 December an air report to the Darwin VAAC stated that volcanic ash was observed near Semeru at an altitude of ~7.6 km a.s.l. The Darwin VAAC stated that the activity may have been associated with Semeru, which frequently erupts ash to ~4.5 km. Due to cloudy conditions, any low-level volcanic activity that was occurring at that time was not visible in satellite imagery.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
For most of the period during 1-8 December weak seismicity was registered at the volcano, however two seismic events occurred that were above normal levels. First, at 1853 on 6 December seismic data indicated that a gas-and-ash explosion may have occurred. The possible explosion was registered as a shallow seismic event and was followed by volcanic tremor. Then, at 1556 on 7 December another shallow seismic event and possible gas-and-ash explosion occurred. The height of the cloud was estimated on the basis of seismicity at about 4-4.5 km a.s.l. The Concern Color Code at the volcano remained at Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
The MVO reported that during 1-8 December volcanism continued at an elevated level, with continued growth of the lava dome. Seismic activity was comparable to the previous week. The main focus of activity remained on the volcano's eastern flanks, although some small rockfalls were observed on the western side of the new growth. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows regularly traveled to the NE down the upper reaches of Tuitt's Ghaut. The dome was observed intensely glowing. Spines continuously grew and collapsed on the summit of the dome, with the highest spine reaching 1,060 m a.s.l. Strong hot spots, and low-level ash clouds (<2 km a.s.l.) associated with the numerous rockfalls and pyroclastic flows were visible on GOES-8 imagery.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
The IG reported an ash cloud at ~5 km a.s.l. (near-summit level) on 9 December. The Washington VAAC used GOES-8 imagery to confirm that the thin ash cloud was moving to the SW.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.