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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 10 January-16 January 2001.


















 Activity for the week of 10 January-16 January 2001

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Guagua Pichincha Ecuador New
Inielika Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) New

Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Peuet Sague Indonesia Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Guagua Pichincha  | Ecuador  | 0.171°S, 78.598°W  | Elevation 4784 m

Guagua Pichincha has been producing fewer seismic events (~100/day) with the continuing growth of dome #9. During the week of 7-13 January the LP events were of greater magnitude and depth, registering on stations 10 km from the crater. Diego Viracucha of the Instituto Geofisica reported via radio on the morning of 14 January that a new crater appeared to be forming in dome #9. Diego informed two assistants that he was going to move several hundred meters W of seismic station "Pino" to take photos. While attempting that work he apparently slipped and fell 200 m into the caldera. He probably died immediately from head wounds and internal injuries. The site of the accident was 2.5 hours from GGP Refuge and it took all day to recover the body; because of the climatic conditions a helicopter could not be used. Recovery of the body was accomplished by six volcanologists from the IG, the Civil Defense, the Guards of the Refuge, the Red Cross, an elite group of police, various mountaineering groups, and family members. A cousin, Galo Viracucha, was injured during the recovery effort and later died as a result.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Inielika  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.73°S, 120.98°E  | Elevation 1559 m

A minor explosion on 11 January 2001 at 1915 produced an ashfall deposit less than 0.5 mm thick in Bajawa (~8 km from the source). On 13 January 2001 at 0700 three explosions occurred, sending a plume ~300-1,000 m above the crater rim; it moved eastward towards Toa village and southward towards Boya village, Bajawa, and Bolodio city. Thundering sounds were heard from the observatory (~7.5 km from the summit). Continuous tremor was recorded with an amplitude of 2 mm and 59 explosion earthquake events had been registered as of 15 January. Inielika is at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

An aerial survey by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) on 10 January confirmed the presence of a lava dome inside the summit crater. The lava dome appeared to have a spiny, blocky surface, was emitting voluminous steam, and exhibited slight incandescence. The SO2 emission rate was 2,300 metric tons per day (t/d), high above the 500 t/d level usually observed during quiescent periods. Seismicity related to dome growth remained significant. Deformation measured by electronic tiltmeters on the N flank indicated intrusion of magma into the upper levels of the volcano. Similar activity continued through the 15th. Alert Level 2 (sustained unrest with indications of magmatic activity) remained in effect.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

The VSI report for 9-15 January noted that activity increased at Merapi, prompting the hazard status to be raised to Alert Level 3 at 0600 on 10 January. Observers frequently noted a weak white plume that rose 500 m above the summit. Glowing lava avalanches continued into the upstream areas of the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers to a runout distance of 2,000 m. On 14 January there were 29 pyroclastic-flow events, which filled the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers out to a maximum distance of ~4,000 m. During this week there were continuous glowing lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows at intervals of 30-60 minutes. The Associated Press reported on 11 January that authorities had ordered people living around the mountain to be on high alert and prepare to leave at short notice.

Sources: Associated Press, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

There has been no new eruptive activity at the summit craters of Etna since early December. Beginning on 7 January 2001, degassing from Bocca Nuova became more rhythmic, indicating some deep explosive activity. On 11 January gas emissions from the Bocca Nuova became more intense and came in distinct puffs. Southeast Crater continued to emit heat; an incandescent fumarole remained high on its SE flank, and snow rapidly melted on the S and E flanks of the cone. During the early morning of 9 January 2001, significant seismicity affected the SE flank, shaking villages and towns including Catania. Tens of thousands of people were woken by the strongest event (M 3.5, MM V). The seismic crisis ended that same day after more than 50 shocks had been registered by the monitoring network. At least three of the earthquakes measured M 3.0 or more, and several were felt by the population of a large area between Nicolosi, Fornazzo, and Catania. Cracks opened in the walls of numerous buildings, but only one uninhabited building in Zafferana partially collapsed.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Explosions occurred at Karangetang on 2 and 7 January. At 1258 on 2 January an explosion sent an ash plume to ~500 m above the summit and at 1845 a glowing lava avalanche from the main crater flowed ~50 m to the Naitu River. A larger explosion on 7 January sent an ash plume to ~1,500 m above the summit and incandescent material reached a height of 200 m. Shocks from ash explosions were felt on the W side of the volcano in Pahe village, Lehi, Mini, and Kinali. "Glowing lava" flowed out to 1,000 m from the main crater down the Tanitu River. A minor explosion on 10 January produced ash that fell back into the crater. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

According to HVO, surface flows on Pulama pali diminished after 9 January. Activity continued on the morning of 10 January from both the W and E tongues. Each was incandescent near the top, and on the lower fourth, of the pali. The much larger W tongue was burning trees along its upper E edge. By the early morning of 11 January, the only incandescence was in the W tongue. Fires continued along the E side of the upper W tongue. The crater of Pu`u `O`o was dimly glowing both mornings. By the morning of 16 January, one flow extended more than halfway down the pali, with patchy incandescence near the base. Glow above the pali and E of the flow on the pali moved eastward overnight; this glow has been there for about a week and indicates uncrusted surface lava or a fire. Lava continued to pond, thicken, and gradually spread seaward on the coastal flat below the pali. Only the faintest of glows came from the July 2000 pit on 16 January. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera continued through this period at a low to moderate level, but bursts of strong tremor lasted about 30 minutes on the morning of the 11th and less than an hour on the 15th.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Peuet Sague  | Indonesia  | 4.914°N, 96.329°E  | Elevation 2801 m

The VSI reported two explosions at Peuet Sague on 25 December, and another the next day. The explosions deposited ash over a wide area including villages 20 km from the summit. As of about 8 January lava flows were visible at the volcano from Trans village, 7 km away. The volcano is at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

Activity at Soufrière Hills during 5-12 January remained elevated with continued growth of the lava dome and rockfalls. The broadband seismic network recorded 1,076 rockfall signals during the reporting period. Growth continued in the summit area with a large amount of debris being shed down the E face of the dome, although the focus of activity seemed to be on the SE side of the dome later in the week. A small amount of rockfall activity occurred down the S side, entering the upper reaches of the White River Valley. The results from a recent dome survey revealed that about 64 million cubic meters of lava have been extruded since 20 March 2000, an extrusion rate for March-December 2000 of about 3 m3/s. On 10 January, a series of static COSPEC scans of the volcanic plume gave SO2-flux values of 400-700 metric tons per day. On 11 January, measurements from a helicopter averaged 640 metric tons per day.

GOES-8 visible infrared and multispectral imagery interpreted by the Washington VAAC showed a low-level plume on the late afternoon to early evening of 9 January that was 9 km wide and extended 41 km WNW. An occasional hot spot was also detected on the 10th.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

Explosions and seismic activity during 2-8 January decreased in comparison to the previous week. Minor explosions from Bromo sent ash to ~200 m above the crater rim, with an average of 28 events per day. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that since 3 January, Tungurahua has had an increase in vapor-and-ash emissions from its 300-m-diameter summit crater. Planes have observed the ash plumes up to 7 km altitude. From the Guadalupe observatory, 11 km N of the cone, ash-laden columns to 3-4 km altitude were observed. No new explosive activity or incandescence has been seen since 22 October 2000. SO2 values, which had been at about 1,000 metric tons/day (t/d) have now risen to 2,000-2,400 t/d. Seismicity remains very low. New fumaroles have been observed since late November at 4,400 m elevation on the NW flank.

Based on reports from the IG, the Washington VAAC issued aviation notices of ash over the volcano on the afternoon of 10 January to an altitude of 6.4 km. Cloudiness made satellite observations difficult, but a pilot reported ash to 7 km altitude over the volcano in the early afternoon of the 11th.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)