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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 26 September-2 October 2001.


















 Activity for the week of 26 September-2 October 2001

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Talang Indonesia New

Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kavachi Solomon Islands Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

During 28-29 September seismic activity was above background levels and weak, shallow seismic signals (possible collapses and avalanches) were registered. Several small explosions occurred on 30 September, sending ash clouds to the following heights above the dome: 2.5 km at 1323, 3.5 km at 1719, 2.5 km at 1755, and 4.5 km at 1807. An explosion at 2010 produced an umbrella-shaped ash cloud that rose 9 km above the lava dome and extended ~9 km E to W. Large pyroclastic flows traveled ~5 km to the SE. The same day the Concern Color Code was raised from Orange to Red. During 28-30 September thermal anomalies in the active dome area were visible on satellite imagery. Following the eruption, during 30 September at 2100 to 1 October at 0900, seismic activity decreased and the view of the volcano was obscured by clouds. AVHRR satellite imagery at 0757 showed that the ~25-km-diameter ash cloud remained centered over the volcano. On 1 October the Concern Color Code was reduced back to Orange.

Sources: Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), China Daily.com



Volcano index photo  Talang  | Indonesia  | 0.979°S, 100.681°E  | Elevation 2575 m

During 24-30 September volcanic activity increased at Talang volcano. Observers noted that on 25 September during 1722-1838 a thick white-brownish plume with high gas pressure rose 200-350 m above the volcano. Personnel at the observatory could smell sulfur during the evening. In comparison to measurements in 2000, temperatures increased in 2001 at Batu Bajanjang hot spring (from 40-60°C to 45-66°C), Gabuo Atas fumarole field (from 98-99°C to 111-114°C), and Gabuo Bawah fumarole field (from 96-99°C to 100-101°C). In addition, the water level at Batu Bajanjang hot spring decreased drastically. Talang was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

According to reports on 28 September, gas emissions from Bocca Nuova crater had been vigorous at times during the previous few weeks. In addition, a dense gas plume was visible rising above Northeast Crater. The cones that formed during the July-August 2001 eruption on the S flank continued to emit heat and minor amounts of gas.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

During 17-23 September lava flows and lava avalanches rarely occurred at Karangetang. Small white-colored emissions rose ~500 m above the main crater and 50-200 m above Crater II. A 10- to 100-m-high "red reflection" was visible above the volcano. Seismic activity decreased in comparison to the previous week and was dominated by multiphase and avalanche earthquakes. During 24-30 September seismic activity continued to decrease and few lava avalanches were observed emanating from main crater. Plumes rose 400 m above the summit of the main crater and 50-100 m above Crater II. A 25-m-high "red reflection" was observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kavachi  | Solomon Islands  | 8.991°S, 157.979°E  | Elevation -20 m

Kavachi erupted daily during August through mid-September. During August ash and volcanic projectiles were observed rising 400 m above sea level and the glow from the volcano was visible from the coast of Gatokae Island, 32 km away.

Source: The Wilderness Lodge



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Lava flows from the W of the active flow field began to enter the ocean at a new area during the evening of 28-29 September. The ocean entry was located S of the former site of Komoamoa camping area. By 30 September a new lava bench and an adjacent black sand beach had begun to form. Lava continued to flow into the ocean at the E Kupapa`u entry, although the overall size of the entry had diminished. Surface lava flows were visible above and on the Pulama pali scarp. The lava flows W and E of the flow field that had been active for the past couple of weeks had mostly crusted over. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate-to-low levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Volcanic activity at Manam during September was very low. Occasional emissions of weak-to-moderate volumes of thin white vapor were visible at Main Crater. Southern Crater emitted very small volumes of thin white vapor.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

During 17-30 September incandescent lava avalanches traveled SW primarily down the Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers to a maximum run-out distance of 2.5 km. During 17-23 September 51 lava avalanches were observed. Temperatures at Gendol Crater increased from 590-595 ºC the previous week to 602-617 ºC during 17-23 September and to 598-618 ºC during 24-30 September. Avalanche earthquakes, which dominated the seismicity, increased in comparison to the previous week.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

During the week, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl consisted of small emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash, and episodes of harmonic tremor. Pilots reported that a steam emission rose 4 km above the volcano on 26 September at 1000.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

During 10-30 September summit activity at Tavurvur, a stratovolcano of the Rabaul Caldera, was very low. During the report period very small-to-moderate amounts of steam were emitted from the active vent and low-frequency volcanic earthquakes decreased. After the 11th seismic activity was relatively low, except for a slight increase on the 16th. Very slow deflation began on 20 September.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Semeru  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.108°S, 112.922°E  | Elevation 3657 m

According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported observing an ash plume rising 1-4 km above Semeru on 1 October at 1457. No ash was visible in satellite imagery, possibly due to low-level meteorological clouds obscuring the plume.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

Volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills during 21-28 September was similar to the previous week, except for a slight reduction in the number of hybrid earthquakes. Seismicity continued to be dominated by bands of hybrid earthquake swarms and increased rockfall activity with periodicities of approximately 11 to 13 hours. The active lava dome continued to grow at a moderate rate, producing rockfalls and small but energetic pyroclastic flows that traveled E to the upper reaches of the Tar River Valley. Periods of vigorous ash venting were associated with the hybrid-earthquake swarms. Steam-and-ash clouds were visible on satellite imagery rising to ~500 m above the volcano.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

On 24 September at 1500 an eruption at Tungurahua produced an ash cloud that rose ~2 km above the volcano and drifted to the W and SW. Roaring and the sound of rockfalls were heard in several towns near the volcano. An eruption on 25 September at 1230 produced a mushroom-shaped ash cloud that rose 5 km above the volcano. The lower portion of the plume drifted to the NW, while the higher portion remained fixed. Ash fell in the town of Cotaló. During the evening of the 25th Strombolian activity was observed, with rockfalls and incandescent volcanic fragments travelling to the W and NW flanks of the volcano. After the eruption volcanic activity consisted of low-level emissions of steam, gas, and ash. Small amounts of ash fell in southern Quero.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

Volcanic tremor occurred at Ulawun on 24 September at 2200 through 30 September. After the tremor peaked on the 27th at about 1000 it fluctuated as it generally declined. By 30 September seismic activity was at moderate levels. During 27-30 September a very slow deflationary trend was detected.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)