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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 25 June-1 July 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 25 June-1 July 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Llaima Chile New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Ol Doinyo Lengai Tanzania Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
San Cristobal Nicaragua Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Llaima  | Chile  | 38.692°S, 71.729°W  | Elevation 3125 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that sporadic gas-and-ash plumes from Llaima were seen when the weather was clear during 1-20 June. More frequent and continuous gas emissions rose from the nested cone in the main crater. Seismicity increased during 13-16 June. Towards the end of the observation period, steam plumes rose from the W flank. ONEMI reported that during an overflight on 26 June, bluish gas and ash rose from the top of an active pyroclastic cone in the main crater and the NE flank was not covered with snow, in contrast to other portions of the volcano. On 1 July, a lava flow on the W flank was seen from nearby communities prompting authorities to evacuate about 20-30 people and warn others of possible further evacuations. The lava flow descended the W flank to 800-1000 m from the crater, raising concern for lahars in the Calbuca river. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the middle level on a 3-level color system).

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

RVO reported that increased seismic activity at Ulawun began on 7 June. During 18 June-2 July, mostly moderate-to-strong emissions of white vapor produced plumes that rose from Ulawun and seismometers recorded high-frequency earthquakes. On 22 June, noises heard in villages to the NE accompanied some of the earthquakes. On 28 June, an Intensity II earthquake was felt in areas nearby and accompanied by a booming noise. A team of officers from RVO and West New Britain Provincial Disaster Office informed communities on the activity status of Ulawun. On 30 June, RVO reported that the level of Alert at Ulawun was at "Stage 2", or that there was an increase in seismic activity above background level. During 1-2 July, roaring and jet noises were reported by people to the NE.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 28 June. The altitude and direction of a possible resultant plume were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 and 30 June, and on 1 July low-level ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 23-26 June, visual observations of Chaitén were inhibited due to inclement weather. Based on web camera views, SIGMET reports, observations of satellite imagery, pilot reports, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous ash emissions on 25 June. They further reported ash plumes at altitudes of 0.6-4.6 km (2,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. during 30 June-1 July. Ash plumes drifted NE and NNW on 30 June, and NNE on 1 July.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was at background levels during 20-27 June but may have indicated weak explosions daily. Observations of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater on 20 and 25 June. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Based on visual observations from HVO crews and web camera views, HVO reported that during 25 June-1 July, lava flowed SE through a lava tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex to the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 24 June, small episodic explosions at Waikupanaha propelled spatter about 50 m into the air; explosions were also noted on other days. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,300 tonnes per day when measured on 24 June; the average background rate was about 2,000 tonnes per day. During 28 June-1 July, a small surface 'a'a lava flow near the E boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision advanced E. During 30 June-1 July, several surface flows from multiple points along the lava tube system were noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit area, along S-flank faults, and along the E and SW rift zones. Another 20-60 small earthquakes per day also occurred but were too small to be located. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. Night-time incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. Seismic tremor was elevated. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tonnes per day when measured on 26 June. The background rate is 150-200 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 1 July and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ol Doinyo Lengai  | Tanzania  | 2.764°S, 35.914°E  | Elevation 2962 m

According to Frederick Belton's website, visitors whom climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls.

Source: Ol Doinyo Lengai (Fred Belton)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 20-26 June, ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes less than 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Roaring noises were reported. During 26-30 June, steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.7 km (3,000-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Nighttime incandescence was noted. During 23-30 June, ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including in Rabaul and surrounding towns.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  San Cristobal  | Nicaragua  | 12.702°N, 87.004°W  | Elevation 1745 m

According to news articles, seismic activity from San Cristóbal increased for multiple days, after a moderate explosion and subsequent ash-and-gas emissions from the crater on 22 June. Local authorities alerted nearby populations to be prepared for potential future activity.

Source: EFE News Service



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was slightly above background levels during 20-27 June and possibly indicated ash explosions on 21, 22, and 25 June. According to video footage and visual observations, moderate fumarolic activity was noted on 24 and 25 June and an ash plume at an altitude of 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. occurred on 25 June. Observations of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 19-20 and 23-25 June. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported no evidence of lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills during 21-27 June. Seismic activity remained low. Heavy rainfall resulted in minor mudflows down the Belham River. The E talus slope continued to erode, producing minor rockfalls that descended into the Tar River Valley. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

Although clouds occasionally inhibited visual observations, IG reported that during 25-27 June, steam and ash-and-steam plumes from Tungurahua rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. Incandescence from inside the crater was observed at night. On 29 June, an explosion generated a "cannon shot" noise and roaring, and caused windows to vibrate in Cusúa, about 7 km NW. More explosions were felt later that day. On 30 June and 1 July, slight ashfall was reported in the town of Manzano, about 8 km SW.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

According to a news articles on 30 June, the Alert level for Ubinas continued at Yellow because small explosions and ash-and-gas emissions continued during the previous two months. Inhabitants of local communities and their livestock have suffered the effects of gas and ash emissions. Local authorities have begun discussion of the potential relocation of about 650 affected families.

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-120,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 June. The plume drifted NE and was not observed on satellite imagery.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), La República, Perú 21



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Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
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Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)