Krakatau

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 6.102°S
  • 105.423°E

  • 813 m
    2667 ft

  • 262000
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

26 March-1 April 2014

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 March an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not identified in satellite images.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2014: March
2012: January | August | September
2011: January | August | September | October
2010: October | November | December
2009: March | April | June | July | October
2008: January | April | June | July | August
2007: October | November
2005: April | May
2004: July
2003: March | April
2002: September
2001: March | April | July | September


26 March-1 April 2014

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 March an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not identified in satellite images.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 September-11 September 2012

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Krakatau acquired on 4 September showed fresh lava flows descending the SE flank of Anak Krakatau, extending the shoreline by about 100 m.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory


29 August-4 September 2012

CVGHM reported that during 1 June-1 September observations of Anak Krakatau were often prevented by fog; occasionally diffuse white plumes were observed rising from the crater in June. Seismicity increased significantly in August. On 2 September seismicity again increased, and at 1830 a Strombolian eruption ejected lava 200-300 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km N.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 January-31 January 2012

CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Anak Krakatau from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 26 January. No details or reasons for the change were given in the report.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


5 October-11 October 2011

On 8 October, a news article stated that activity at Anak Krakatau was increasing; the number of seismic events was 5,204 on 6 October, 5,543 on 7 October, and 5,883 on 8 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors and residents were not permitted to approach the volcano within a 2-km radius.

Source: The Jakarta Post


28 September-4 October 2011

CVGHM reported that seismicity from Anak Krakatau in 2011, as late as 10 July, consisted of 20-30 volcanic-earthquake events per day and shallow events ranged from 120 to 135 events per day. Hundreds of events per day were detected during swarms. On 10 July, the seismic equipment was damaged by Krakatau's activity but was again operational in mid-September. During 18-30 September seismic events reached 4-5 events per minute. Visual observations in 2011 until 13 September indicated occasional explosive eruptions that would eject material and produce ash plumes. During 14-30 September fumarolic activity from the crater and in the fumarolic fields was visible. The Alert Level was increased to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 30 September based on an increase in seismic activity and widespread fumarolic activity.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


3 August-9 August 2011

A satellite image acquired on 31 July showed a diffuse ash plume rising from Anak Krakatau and drifting W.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory


12 January-18 January 2011

Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 January an eruption plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Meteorological clouds prevented observations of the area from satellite. On 15 January, a pilot observed a plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 18-28 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 December-28 December 2010

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 December an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-75 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2010

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image shows an ash-and-gas plume rising from Anak Krakatau on 17 November.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory


27 October-2 November 2010

A news report on 2 November noted that the frequency of explosions from Anak Krakatau had slowly increased to 100 per day since 25 October. During 31 October-1 November there were 251 explosions recorded.

Source: The Jakarta Post


28 October-3 November 2009

CVGHM reported that from August to 29 October seismicity from Anak Krakatau, and the occurrence of eruption plumes, decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


1 July-7 July 2009

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 July an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 June-23 June 2009

A news report on 18 June noted that activity at Krakatau had increased significantly. According to the head of the volcano monitoring post in Pasauran village there were 828 small eruptions in the previous six days, reaching the rate of a new explosion every three minutes. Observers on beaches in Java could clearly see rising white gas-and-steam plumes along with incandescent ejecta at night. Residents also reported loud explosion noises. The level of activity decreased again on 19 June, and the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Antara News


29 April-5 May 2009

CVGHM reported that the number of eruptions from Anak Krakatau increased significantly at the end of March and continued through 5 May. Seismic data were not collected during 26 April-29 April due to instrument malfunctions. Direct observations of the crater on 24, 25, and 29 April revealed that the eruption originated from a crater on the W slope of Anak Krakatau. Ash plumes generally drifted E and caused ashfall within a 5 km radius of the crater. Clear weather on 5 May allowed for visual observations; "smoke" rose 500 m above the crater. On 6 May, the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


22 April-28 April 2009

According to a news article on 29 April, some residents on western Java (Lampung) near Krakatau have evacuated due to their observations of increased volcanic activity during the previous week. Observers reported loud blasts, lava flows, and ash plumes that rose 200-800 m above the Anak Krakatau crater. Pilots had also reported seeing ash plumes. A volcanologist from CVGHM stated that the activity did not merit an increase in the Alert level. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, The Jakarta Post


1 April-7 April 2009

During 27-30 March and 1 April, CVGHM reported that visual observations of Krakatau when the weather was clear revealed that ash plumes rose 200-800 m above the Anak Krakatau crater. On 2 April, an ash eruption was seen on satellite imagery and reported by a pilot. A resultant ash plume drifted more than 60 km S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


25 March-31 March 2009

CVGHM reported that seismicity from Krakatau increased during 19-25 March. Fog prevented observations on 24 March. During periods of clear weather on 25 March, white-to-gray plumes rose 400 m above Anak Krakatau. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 August-19 August 2008

According to a news article, explosions and earthquakes from Anak Krakatau averaged 120 per day approximately during 11-17 August. Monitoring personnel observed active lava flows, ejecting rocks, and emissions of "smoke."

Source: EFE News Service


6 August-12 August 2008

According to a news article, eruptions from Anak Krakatau increased in frequency during 10-11 August. On 12 August, monitoring personnel reported that active lava flows and emissions of thick "smoke" continued but that the frequency of earthquakes and eruptions had declined.

Source: Antara News


23 July-29 July 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 July and drifted NW. A meteorological cloud obscured satellite views the next day but the VAAC warned that ash may still be present in the area.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 July-8 July 2008

CVGHM reported that during 22 June-1 July, the number of seismic events from Anak Krakatau decreased significantly and booming noises were less frequently heard. During 1-3 July, ash emissions also declined. Based on a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level plume drifted NW on 2 July. On 3 July, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 June-1 July 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 1 July and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 June and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 April-22 April 2008

CVGHM reported that seismicity from Anak Krakatau increased during 14-21 April; the number of events per day peaked on 20 April. Ash plumes accompanied by propelled incandescent rocks were noted during field observations on 16, 17, and 18 April. The eruption affected the summit and the E and S flanks. Booming noises were reported and occasionally heard at an observation post 42 km away. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 21 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 April-8 April 2008

CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Anak Krakatau to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 April. Seismicity declined in early February, and eruption plumes and propelled incandescent material were not seen after 4 February. Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1.5-km radius of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 January-22 January 2008

According to a news article, incandescent rocks erupted and plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.3 km (9,200-10,800 ft) a.s.l. on 20 January. Eruptions reportedly had a "deafening sound" and could be seen from Sertung and Rakata islands.

Source: Antara News


7 November-13 November 2007

According to news articles, gas-and-ash plumes from Anak Krakatau continued rise and seismicity was elevated during 9-11 November. Incandescent material was propelled from the summit and fell onto the flanks. Lava flows were also observed traveling down the flanks. Villagers and tourists were advised not go within a 3-km radius of the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM, VietNamNet/Xinhuanet, Reuters


31 October-6 November 2007

According to a news article, "red-hot lava flares" from Anak Krakatau rose 500-700 m above the S crater on 6 November. Multiple ash clouds were also observed.

Source: Bernama


24 October-30 October 2007

CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) for Krakatau on 26 October due to the presence of multiple gray plumes from Anak Krakatau and an increase in seismicity during 23-26 October. Plumes rose to an altitude of approximately 1 km (3,300 ft) a.s.l. during 23-26 and 30 October. Inclement weather resulted in only intermittent observations. Villagers and tourists were advised not go within a 3 km radius of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 May-24 May 2005

An increase in seismic activity at Krakatau around 16 May prompted DVGHM to raise the Alert Level at the volcano from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on the 16th.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


13 April-19 April 2005

Due to a decrease in seismic activity at Krakatau over a 4-day period, the Alert Level at the volcano was reduced from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 April. The volcano was considered to be at a normal level of activity. Visitors were still banned from the summit and crater of Anak Krakatau due to toxic gas emission.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


6 April-12 April 2005

On 13 April at 0800, DVGHM raised the Alert Level at Krakatau to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


14 July-20 July 2004

In July there was an increase in the number of gas-and-steam emissions from the crater of Anak Krakatau. In addition, the number of volcanic earthquakes increased from 1-4 per day before 5 July, to ~57 per day, then dropped to 2-17 earthquakes per day by mid-July. The Alert Level at Krakatau was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visits to the crater were prohibited.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


2 April-8 April 2003

During 24-30 March there was a significant decrease in the number of earthquakes at Krakatau in comparison to the previous week. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes decreased the most; 58 occurred during 17-23 March, whereas 12 occurred during the report period. Krakatau remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


26 March-1 April 2003

During 17-23 March, seismicity at Krakatau was dominated by volcanic earthquakes and there was a significant increase in the number of shallow events. No visual observations could be made due to inclement weather. Krakatau remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 September-10 September 2002

Volcanic activity at Krakatau was at low levels from May until mid-August when the number of daily seismic events increased. There was no corresponding increase in surface activity. The Alert Level was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


19 September-25 September 2001

The number of explosion earthquakes decreased significantly during 10-16 September in comparison to the previous week, while the number of small explosion earthquakes increased. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


12 September-18 September 2001

In comparison to the previous week there was a significant increase in explosion and volcanic earthquakes at Krakatau during 3-9 September. The number of small explosion earthquakes sharply decreased. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


18 July-24 July 2001

There were 728 shallow volcanic earthquakes at Krakatau during 9-15 July, which was a significant increase in comparison to the previous week. No visual observations were made. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


4 April-10 April 2001

The VSI reported that Anak Krakatau showed an increase in seismic activity during 27 March- 1 April in comparison to the previous week. The seismographs detected seven deep volcanic, 54 shallow volcanic, and seven tectonic earthquakes. Krakatau is at alert level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 March-27 March 2001

Anak Krakatau showed a significant increase in activity during the week of 12-18 March. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes (type B) rose to 79 from 25 the previous week. Activity decreased again during 19-26 March, with only 34 shallow volcanic events. Krakatau is at hazard level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2011 Jul 31 2012 Sep 9 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
2010 Oct 25 (?) 2011 Mar 9 ± 8 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
2009 Mar 25 (?) 2009 Sep (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
2007 Oct 23 2008 Aug 30 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
2001 Jul 21 2001 Sep 17 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
2000 May 29 2000 Oct 30 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1999 Feb 5 1999 Aug (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1997 Mar (in or before) 1997 May (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1996 Jul (in or before) 1996 Oct (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1994 Mar 19 1995 Jun (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1992 Nov 7 1993 Oct Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1988 Feb 14 ± 5 days 1988 Apr (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau (S flank 1960-81 cone)
1981 Apr 24 1981 Oct 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1980 Mar 15 ± 5 days 1980 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1979 Jul 15 ± 5 days 1979 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1978 Jul 10 1978 Nov Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1975 Mar 27 1975 Oct 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1972 Jun 10 ± 3 days 1973 Jul 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
[ 1969 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Anak Krakatau
1965 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1959 Dec 1963 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1958 Oct 2 1959 Jun 25 ± 4 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1955 Feb 11 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1953 Sep 21 1953 Nov 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1953 Mar 17 1953 May 1 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1952 Oct 10 1952 Oct 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1950 Jul 3 1950 Jul 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1949 May 12 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1946 Dec 26 ± 5 days 1947 Aug 7 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1946 Jul 25 1946 Jul 25 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1945 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1944 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1943 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1942 Jan 29 1942 Jan 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1941 Jan 28 1941 Feb 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1938 Jul 4 1940 Jul 2 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1937 Aug 6 1937 Nov 23 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1936 Oct 13 1936 Nov Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1935 Jan 4 1935 Jul 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1932 Nov 14 1934 Jun 9 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1931 Sep 23 1932 Feb 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1927 Dec 29 1930 Aug 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Anak Krakatau
1883 May 20 1883 Oct 21 (?) Confirmed 6 Historical Observations Krakatau Island (Perbuwatan, Danan)
1684 Feb 1 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1680 May 1681 Nov 19 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Perbuwatan
1530 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1320 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1150 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1050 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0950 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0850 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0416 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
0250 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Camus G, Gourgaud A, Vincent P M, 1987. Petrologic evolution of Krakatau (Indonesia): Implications for a future activity. J Volc Geotherm Res, 33: 299-316.

Carey S, Sigurdsson H, Mandeville C, Bronto S, 1996. Pyroclastic flows and surges over water: an example from the 1883 Krakatau eruption. Bull Volc, 57: 493-511.

de Neve G A, 1985a. Earlier eruptive activities of Krakatau in historic time and during the Quaternary. In: Sastrapradja D et al (eds) {Proc Symp on 100 Years Devel of Krakatau and its Surroundings}, Jakarta: Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, 1: 35-46.

Deplus C, Bonvalot S, Dahrin D, Diament M, Harjono H, Dubois J, 1995. Inner structure of the Krakatau volcanic complex (Indonesia) from gravity and bathymetry data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 64: 23-52.

Effendi A C, Bronto S, Sukhyar R, 1986. Geologic map of Krakatau volcano complex, Sunda Strait, Lampung Province. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:25,000 geol map.

Judd J W, 1888. On the volcanic phenomena of the eruption, and on the nature and distribution of the ejected materials. In: Symons G J (ed) {The Eruption of Krakatoa and Subsequent Phenomena}, London: Tribner & Co, Roy Soc London Rpt: 1-56.

Mandeville C W, Carey S, Sigurdsson H, 1996. Sedimentology of the Krakatau 1883 submarine pyclastic deposits. Bull Volc, 57: 512-529.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Oba N, Tomita K, Yamamoto M, Istidjab M, Badrunddin M, Parlin M, Sadjiman, Djuwandi A, Sudradjat A, Suhanda T, 1982. Geochemical study of lava flows, ejecta and pyroclastic flow from the Krakatau group, Indonesia. Rep Fac Sci Kagoshima Univ, 15: 41-76.

Self S, Rampino M R, 1981. The 1883 eruption of Krakatau. Nature, 294: 699-704.

Simkin T, Fiske R S, 1983. Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and its Effects. Washington, D C: Smithsonian Inst Press, 464 p.

Verbeek R D M, 1885. Krakatau. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij, 495 p.

The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.