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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 10 September-16 September 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 10 September-16 September 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) New

Arenal Costa Rica Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Llaima Chile Ongoing
Masaya Nicaragua Ongoing
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 September a low-level ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Arenal  | Costa Rica  | 10.463°N, 84.703°W  | Elevation 1670 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during August, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts that traveled down the SW flanks. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

Based on web camera views, pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 10 and 12-15 September, continuous ash plumes from Chaitén rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, SW, S, and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 September a low-level ash plume from Dukono drifted SW. The next day, a plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that a M 2 earthquake located S of Galeras occurred on 9 September at a depth of less than 1 km. The sulfur dioxide emission measurement was 14,500 tonnes the next day. During 11-16 September, the sulfur dioxide emission rate fluctuated between 3,200 and 6,800 tons. Gas plumes drifted W and NW.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 5-12 September. Possible explosions may have generated ash plumes to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed ash plumes drifting SE on 6 September and a thermal anomaly in the crater during 6-7 September. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, information from KVERT, and pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 16 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that during 10-16 September, lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 9 September, geologists observed small littoral explosions that ejected debris 20 m into the air. Incandescence flashed from multiple sources within the central and western parts of Pu'u 'O'o crater were seen during 11-12 September.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zones. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater, 50-100 small earthquakes per day (background is 20-40) also occurred but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with minor ash content that drifted mainly SW. The plume was occasionally tinged brown in association with small local earthquakes. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume, and rock impact sounds were heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Llaima  | Chile  | 38.692°S, 71.729°W  | Elevation 3125 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Llaima was lowered to Green, Level 2, on 10 September due to decreased seismicity and no major emissions.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Masaya  | Nicaragua  | 11.984°N, 86.161°W  | Elevation 635 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that plumes emitted from Masaya on 10 and 12 September possibly contained ash. Plumes drifted ENE on 10 September.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that small episodes of tremor from Piton de la Fournaise were recorded on 12 September. Field observations confirmed an increase in degassing from the SW part of Dolomieu crater and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. A seismic crisis was detected during 15-16 September. Numerous landslides followed the crisis, but may have also been associated with heavy rains. The Alert Level was not changed.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone continued to be emitted during 9-14 September. Ashfall was reported in areas to the S, SW, and NW. Sub-continuous incandescence at the summit was observed, and roaring and rumbling noises were heard. Explosions also ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, pilot reports, and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 10 September seismic stations monitoring Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex detected a lahar below the S flank in the Nima I River. The lahar, about 18 m wide and up to 2 m deep, carried blocks and smelled of sulfur. During 11-16 September, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.3 km (9,200-10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Semeru  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.108°S, 112.922°E  | Elevation 3657 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 September a plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 5-12 September. A large number of hot avalanches descended the lava dome; ash produced from one of the events rose to an altitude of 5.1 km (16,700 ft) a.s.l. on 10 September. Fumaroles were active during 10-11 September; cloud cover prevented visual observations on other days. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

According to a news article, a small collapse of the SW part of the lava dome on 13 September generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Itar-Tass News



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 6-12 September, visual observations and other data suggested that the W side of the Soufrière Hills lava dome continued to grow. Rockfalls descended the W side of the dome and the smell of volcanic gases was occasionally noticed when the wind blew N and NE. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that fumarolic activity and gas discharge in and to the W of Turrialba's central crater continued throughout August. Multiple fumaroles and sulfur deposition were noted in both the central and W craters. Fumarolic emissions on the S and SE flanks of the W crater continued to damage vegetation in that area.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 10 and 13-15 September ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-10.1 km (18,000-33,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, E, and NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fuego Little Sitkin Salak
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Balbi Huila, Nevado del Momotombo Sorikmarapi
Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Sotara
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere Hills
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Soufriere St. Vincent
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky South Sarigan Seamount
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho Spurr
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro St. Helens
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Stromboli
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sulu Range
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sumbing
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Sundoro
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suretamatai
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Suwanosejima
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Taal
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Tair, Jebel at
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Takawangha
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Talang
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tambora
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tanaga
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tandikat-Singgalang
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tangkuban Parahu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Tara, Batu
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Telica
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tenerife
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Tengger Caldera
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Three Sisters
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tinakula
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tofua
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tokachidake
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Tolbachik
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Toliman
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tongariro
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Tungurahua
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Turrialba
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ubinas
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Ulawun
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unknown Source
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Unnamed
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Veniaminof
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt Villarrica
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador West Mata
Erebus Lamington Reykjanes White Island
Erta Ale Lamongan Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Etna Langila Rinjani Wolf
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ritter Island Yasur
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Rotorua Zaozan [Zaosan]
Fernandina Lateiki Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fonualei Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fourpeaked Lewotolo Sakar
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)