Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 15 July-21 July 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 15 July-21 July 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Aira Kyushu (Japan) New
San Miguel El Salvador New

Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Egon Flores Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Makian Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sarychev Peak Matua Island (Russia) Ongoing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, analyses of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 15-21 July explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa crater occasionally produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes were observed drifting SW, N, and NE. On 19 July, JMA raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). They noted increased frequency of explosive eruptions since late June, and shock waves that were detected on 18 and 19 July.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  San Miguel  | El Salvador  | 13.434°N, 88.269°W  | Elevation 2130 m

On 20 July, Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) reported that the amplitude of seismic events from San Miguel had decreased to normal or background levels. Access to areas within a 2-km-radius continued to be restricted.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 July an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Barren Island  | Andaman Islands (India)  | 12.278°N, 93.858°E  | Elevation 354 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20 July an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-65 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-18 July ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-55 km in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

Based on web camera views from the S, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 8-15 July gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.2 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows, particularly in the W area of the complex. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views, analyses of satellite imagery, and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 16, 19, and 21 July ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, SE, and SSW. Thermal anomalies were detected in satellite imagery on 16 and 19 July.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Egon  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.676°S, 122.455°E  | Elevation 1661 m

CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Egon was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 16 July due to the continued decrease in earthquake activity since 12 May. Small steam plumes were occasionally visible when the weather was clear.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

CVGHM reported that white and gray plumes from Ibu rose 600 m above the crater rim prior to 11 July and 400 m above the crater afterwards. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas, within a 3-km-radius of Ibu. Based on information from the Gamsungi observation post and seismic data, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level on 16 July from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within 2 km of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 15-20 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows at several locations on the pali, and on the TEB flow field. A structure in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision was destroyed on 16 July. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were reported on 17 July. Lava was not seen entering the ocean on 21 July.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted mainly SW. No lava or incandescence from the crater had been seen since a "deflation-inflation" event on 4 July. Small amounts of ash-sized "rock dust" were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 400 and 1,100 tonnes per day on 17 and 20 July, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Makian  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 0.32°N, 127.4°E  | Elevation 1357 m

CVGHM reported that on 16 July the Alert Level for Makian was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) because no visual changes or increased seismicity were noted. Residents and tourists were not permitted to climb Makian.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 10-21 July white and occasionally blue tinted plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose less than 1 km above the crater. Pale-gray ash accompanied the emissions on 13 and 15 July. Ashfall affected Rabaul town (3-5 km NW), Ratavul (20 km SSE), and Nonga (10 km NW). Incandescence was visible at night and roaring was heard during 14-18 July.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sarychev Peak  | Matua Island (Russia)  | 48.092°N, 153.2°E  | Elevation 1496 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that gas-and-steam plumes from Sarychev Peak were seen on satellite imagery during 15, 18-19, and 21 July. Plumes drifted 30-50 km W and S. Cloud cover prevented observations during 16-17 and 20 July. Sarychev Peak does not have a seismic network.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Semeru  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.108°S, 112.922°E  | Elevation 3657 m

CVGHM reported that on 15 March an eruption from Semeru produced a white-and-gray plume that rose 600 m above the crater. White plumes and ash eruptions gradually ceased and seismicity decreased. From 5 May until the end of June, fog prevented visual observations. On 16 July, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 10-17 July seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. On 14 July, a gas-and-steam plume seen on a video camera rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. during 10, 13-14, and 16 July, and steam-and-gas plumes with some ash content were emitted during the reporting period. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome, and a steam plume that drifted 19 km SW on 13 July. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 July an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 July an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Eruptions reported by the JMA during 16-17 July produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

Search by Volcano
Agung Fuego Llaima San Cristobal
Ahyi Fujisan Loihi San Miguel
Aira Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung San Vicente
Akan Galeras Lopevi Sangay
Alaid Galunggung Machin Sangeang Api
Alu-Dalafilla Gamalama Makian Santa Ana
Ambae Gamkonora Makushin Santa Maria
Ambang Gaua Maly Semyachik Sarigan
Ambrym Gorely Manam Sarychev Peak
Anatahan Great Sitkin Manda Hararo Saunders
Antuco Grimsvotn Marapi Semeru
Apoyeque Guagua Pichincha Maroa Semisopochnoi
Arenal Guallatiri Martin Seulawah Agam
Asamayama Guntur Masaya Sheveluch
Askja Hachijojima Mauna Loa Shishaldin
Asosan Hakoneyama Mayon Simbo
Augustine Heard McDonald Islands Sinabung
Avachinsky Hekla Melimoyu Sinarka
Awu Hierro Merapi Siple
Axial Seamount Hokkaido-Komagatake Metis Shoal Sirung
Azul, Cerro Home Reef Midagahara Slamet
Azumayama Hood Misti, El Soputan
Bagana Hudson, Cerro Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Balbi Huila, Nevado del Momotombo Sotara
Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Veniaminof
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Villarrica
Egon Kurikomayama Raung West Mata
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt White Island
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador Witori
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Yasur
Etna Langila Ritter Island Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
Search by Date
Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.





 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement


RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)