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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 October-3 November 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 28 October-3 November 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Galeras Colombia New
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) New
Manam Papua New Guinea New
Nevado del Huila Colombia New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

KVERT reported that on 26 October a gas-and-steam plume from Ebeko was seen by observers in Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, rising 300 m above the crater and drifting 1-2 km NNE. There was no evidence of ash deposits on the snow cover. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 250 m above the crater and drifted 2 km E on 28 October and NNE on 29 October. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

On 30 October, INGEOMINAS reported that the Alert Level for Galeras was raised to II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks"). Since 27 October, degassing decreased and seismicity increased, reflecting conditions seen prior to previous eruptions. On 3 November, INGEOMINAS stated that gas emissions had been low during the previous days, and seismicity had decreased that day.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Based on a pilot observation and analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 November an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-185 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 November ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-55 km NW and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

INGEOMINAS reported that on 28 October a pulse of tremor from Nevado del Huila was followed by an ash plume that, according to the Washington VAAC, rose to an altitude of 8.3 km (27,200 ft) a.s.l. On 30 October and 2 November overflights revealed a high rate of lava dome growth compared to the previous observation on 23 October. An ash layer covered the W part of Pico Central. Continuous and intense degassing originated from areas that also exhibited thermal anomalies detected with a thermal imaging camera. Resulting gas plumes drifted NW. The volume estimate for the new lava dome was nearly 9 million cubic meters.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, pilot observations, and web camera views, the Washington VAAC reported that on 31 October an ash plume drifted 65 km S. During 31 October-2 November, thermal anomalies were seen on satellite imagery. On 2 November, a small plume seen on the web camera drifted SE. Gas plumes, occasionally accompanied by ash plumes, drifted 35 km SE.

On 3 November, INGEOMINAS reported that a pulse of tremor was followed by an ash plume that, according to the VAAC, rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in communities downwind. The VAAC also noted that another ash plume rose to an altitude below 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. INGEOMINAS stated that residents of Mosoco (20 km SSW) saw collapses from the W side of the dome generate small pyroclastic flows and incandescence at night. The Alert Level remained at II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks").

Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 23-30 October seismic activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a slightly lower level that the previous week. Numerous pyroclastic flows occurred in most of the major drainage valleys and rockfalls were concentrated in the S. Heavy rainfall caused lahars in the Belham Valley to the W. On 28 October, two pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km W down Gages Valley. On 29 October, a 40-m-high spine was seen protruding from the summit. Changes in lava-dome morphology seen on 30 October, and occurrences of pyroclastic flows traveling NE, indicated that growth was concentrated in the central part of the lava dome. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 28 October-3 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted W, SW, S, SE, and NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Barren Island  | Andaman Islands (India)  | 12.278°N, 93.858°E  | Elevation 354 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 November an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 55-75 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 30 October a diffuse ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose possibly mixed with steam and gas drifted SSE. On 1 November, a plume drifted 20 km W.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NE and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 23-27 and 30 October, a possible indication that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. No seismic data was available on 22 and 28 October. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed an ash plume that drifted 120 km E on 23 October, and a thermal anomaly during 23-26 and 29 October. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 28 October-3 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava began entering the ocean at a second location, 700 m farther to the W, on 31 October. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also immediately W of the County Public Viewing trail. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. On 3 November, a collapse of the surface revealed a circulating and spattering lava pond below. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 800 tonnes per day was measured on 30 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels; tremor increased on 26 October. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was occasionally noted. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

CVGHM reported that from August to 29 October seismicity from Anak Krakatau, and the occurrence of eruption plumes, decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that on 29 October a small explosive event from Popocatépetl produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km N, E, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 October seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels and possibly indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. and to an altitude of 6.9 km (22,600 ft) a.s.l. on 29 October. Fumarolic activity was occasionally seen. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed a large thermal anomaly over the lava dome during 22-27 October and an ash plume that drifted 24 km NE on 26 October. Based on information from KEMSD and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 October an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. A possible eruption plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day. On 1 November, an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 30 October and 2 November. Details of possible resulting emissions were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
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Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)