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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 24 February-2 March 2010.


















 Activity for the week of 24 February-2 March 2010

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Poas Costa Rica New
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 23 February a phreatic eruption from Laguna Caliente, a summit lake of Poás, ejected gray and sulfur-scented sediment onto the southern flanks. The event was seen by a scientist collecting samples in the low part of the crater and by visitors at the viewpoint area. Seismographs showed no precursory signals.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Semeru  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.108°S, 112.922°E  | Elevation 3657 m

On 1 March, CVGHM reported that although inclement weather often prevented observations of Semeru during November 2009-February 2010, "smoke" was often seen rising 50-500 m above the Jonggring Seloko crater. During 25-28 February, incandescent rock avalanches traveled as far as 750 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 19-26 February activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A few rockfalls originated from the inner walls of the collapse scar on the N flank, formed during the 11 February event. Small areas of incandescence on the dome were noted. Gas emission ratios were consistent with slow lava extrusion, but growth was unconfirmed. On 26 February scientists first saw the crater at the summit of the lava dome formed by explosions on 11 February. The crater was 200 m in diameter and 50-100 m deep. The Hazard Level was lowered to 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24 February-2 March explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes identified in satellite imagery and seen by pilots. The plumes, occasionally containing ash, rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

On 26 February and 2 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced gray plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.5 km (13,500-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Avalanches descended the S and W flanks. Weak incandescence emanated from the crater. On 2 March, ash fell in areas downwind.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was occasionally above background levels during 19-26 February, possibly indicating weak ash explosions. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 22 and 24 February; cloud cover prevented observations on other days. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 24 February-2 March, HVO reported an active lava surface about 200 m below a vent in the floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater. The lava surface circulated and both rose and drained through holes in the cavity floor. Low lava fountains rose from the south edge of the deep pit. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW, dropping small amounts of ash downwind. Measurements on 25 February indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated at 900 tonnes per day. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Lava from beneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex flowed SE through a lava tube system and broke out onto the surface. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite and visual observations revealed active lava flows on the pali and on the coastal plain. Incandescence was sometimes seen from a vent low on the S wall of Pu'u 'O'o crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 19-26 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 90 km NNW on 23 February and 25 km ESE the next day. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

On 2 March, PHIVOLCS reported that, after the Alert Level for Mayon was lowered to 2 on 13 January, seismicity remained at normal levels, deflation was measured, and sulfur dioxide emissions were consistent with post-eruption levels. Rising steam and incandescence from the crater was not indicative of any new activity. The Alert level was lowered to 1 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 26 February explosions from Pacaya ejected tephra 150 m high. Bluish-white plumes drifted N and a lava flow traveled 800 m E.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl during 24-28 February. Plumes contained small amounts of ash on 28 February and 1 March.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

On 2 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.1 km (9,200-10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Ash fell in areas downwind.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 19-26 February seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels, possibly indicating ash plumes rising to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. Fumarolic activity was occasionally observed. Ash and snow fell simultaneously in Klyuchi, 50 km SW, on 21 February. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the lava dome, and ash plumes that drifted 30 km to the N and E on 23 and 25 February, respectively. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 60 km N during 18 and 22-25 February. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 24-28 February, IG reported that as many as 11 explosions from Tungurahua were detected by the seismic network; explosions were not detected on 1 or 2 March. Although inclement weather occasionally prevented observations of the volcano, ash plumes were seen during 24 February-1 March rising to altitudes of 6.5-8 km (21,300-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW and W. Ashfall was noted almost daily in areas downwind.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fourpeaked Little Sitkin San Cristobal
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Bardarbunga Ibu Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Ijen Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliamna Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Ioto Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Iya Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kaba Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kadovar NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raung Villarrica
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
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Erebus Lamington Rinjani Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
Etna Langila Rotorua Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Sabancaya
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)