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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 9 June-15 June 2010.


















 Activity for the week of 9 June-15 June 2010

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Chachadake [Tiatia] Kunashir Island (Japan/Russia) New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Melimoyu Chile New
Pacaya Guatemala New
San Cristobal Nicaragua New
South Sarigan Seamount Mariana Islands (USA) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Eyjafjallajokull Iceland Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Gaua Banks Islands (Vanuatu) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that although clouds prevented views of Bezymianny during 4-11 June, thermal anomalies were seen in satellite imagery during 4-5 and 8 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chachadake [Tiatia]  | Kunashir Island (Japan/Russia)  | 44.353°N, 146.252°E  | Elevation 1822 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly from Tiatia was detected by satellite on 10 June. Tiatia does not have a seismic network; satellite image observations are the primary tool for monitoring many of the Kurile Islands volcanoes.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that on 11 June the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland was lowered to Unassigned; no activity or unrest was detected during 4-11 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Melimoyu  | Chile  | 44.08°S, 72.88°W  | Elevation 2400 m

ODVAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported on 8 June that the Alert Level for Melimoyu was raised to Green Level 2 due to increased seismicity during May, specifically starting with nine long-period earthquakes on 27 May. The next day six long-period earthquakes preceded two separate seismic swarms. The first swarm was located 2-12 km beneath the summit. Earthquakes in the second swarm were located 7-14 km S of the summit at depths no greater than 15 km. All earthquakes were M 2.5 or less.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 June Pacaya's MacKenney cone emitted white-and-blue fumarolic plumes that rose 300 m high, and generated sounds audible up to 5 km away that resembled airplane engines. Occasional ash plumes drifted 2 km NW. Lava flows continued to be active on the SE flank and moved at a speed of about 1 m per hour. Explosions continued from a lateral crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  San Cristobal  | Nicaragua  | 12.702°N, 87.004°W  | Elevation 1745 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 9 June a well-defined ash plume from San Cristóbal drifted about 115 km WNW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



South Sarigan Seamount  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 16.58°N, 145.78°E  | Elevation -184 m

On 10 June the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Sarigan was lowered to Unassigned because no further volcanic activity was noted since the submarine eruption from a vent S of the island on 29 May.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

Although storm clouds occasionally prevented observations of Tungurahua's summit area during 9-12 June, steam-and-ash plumes were seen and rose to altitudes of 5.5-8 km (18,000-29,500 ft) a.s.l. Daily reports of ashfall came from multiple areas within about 8 km NW, W, and SW, but ash was noted as far away as 22 km NW and 25 km W on 9 June. Blocks, including some that were incandescent, occasionally ejected by explosions rolled at most 1 km down the flanks. Explosions caused noises resembling "cannon shots" and vibrating windows almost daily. During 13-14 June steam plumes from the crater and the NW flank rose 500-1,000 m above the crater and drifted W. An explosion on 15 June generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

RVO reported that during 9-16 June white and gray plumes from Ulawun rose 800-900 m high. Fine ashfall was reported almost daily and affected the NW, W, and SW flanks. During 9-12 June occasional rumbling noises were reported. Fluctuating incandescence from the crater was seen at night on 9 and 10 June from observers in areas to the SW and for a brief period of time on 13 June from areas N.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima during 12-14 June. Details of possible resulting plumes were not reported. On 15 June an ash plume at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was reported by a pilot.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 13-14 June and drifted 75-205 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9 and 11-15 June ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 June an ash plume from Dukono was seen in satellite imagery drifting 130 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Eyjafjallajokull  | Iceland  | 63.633°N, 19.633°W  | Elevation 1651 m

The Nordic Volcanological Center (NVC) at the Institute of Earth Sciences reported that on 9 June rumbling noises were heard at Gígjökull just before a steam cloud rose from the summit crater. The crater area was not visible the next day, but a few small shallow earthquakes beneath the summit crater continued to be detected. On 11 June white steam was mainly confined to the crater, but occasionally a steam plume rose higher than the rim. Heavy rainfall during the previous few days led to flooding along the Svadbaelisa River. The water contained a large amount of mud and flowed over levees into fields. NVC also noted that a lake about 300 m in diameter had formed in the large summit crater. Steam rose as high as 1 km from the rims, especially from the N side. Two small vents above the water level on the W side emitted brown-colored clouds.

Source: Institute of Earth Sciences



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 10-11 June multiple explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.3 km (13,500-14,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Rumbling and "degassing" sounds were associated with the explosions. Occasionally incandescent material was ejected as high as 75 m above the crater and avalanches descended the flanks. Fine ashfall was reported in Sangre de Cristo, 10 km WSW. During a period of increased activity on 11 June, shock waves were detected as far away as 5 km.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Gaua  | Banks Islands (Vanuatu)  | 14.27°S, 167.5°E  | Elevation 797 m

Based on information from the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 7 June an ash plume from Gaua rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 4-11 June seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels, and suggested that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. on 6 June. Satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 4-5 and 8 June. Based on information from KVERT and Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 June an eruption produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 9-15 June HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit and the east rift zone. At the summit, the level of a lava-pool surface remained mostly stable in the deep pit inset within the floor of Halema'uma'u crater; glow from the vent was visible. A plume from the vent mainly drifted SW, dropping small amounts of tephra downwind. Vigorous bubbling of the lava surface was seen during 14-15 June.

At the east rift zone, lava flows that broke out of the TEB lava-tube system at 580 m elevation built up rootless shields. Minor surface lava flows from the shields were often active on the pali and the coastal plain, and advanced along the W side of the TEB flow field towards the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision. The Pu'u 'O'o web camera recorded a growing and sometimes circulating lava pond on the crater floor that was an estimated 300 x 125 m in dimension. The pond was fed predominantly from a source near the N rim of the Pu'u 'O'o, with some contributions from a source near the S shore.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 4-11 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes, occasionally containing a small amount of ash, were also noted. On 5 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 60-190 km NE on 5 and 8 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 9-11 June steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. On 10 June an ash-and-steam plume rose 800 m above the crater. The next day an ash-and-gas plume rose 1 km above the crater. Later that day, another ash-and-gas plume rose 600 m.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 4-11 June seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels and hot avalanches were seen at night. The seismic data suggested that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,400 ft) a.s.l. during 3-4 and 6 June. Ash plumes were seen during 4-6 and 9 June rising to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a large daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome, and ash plumes that drifted 100 km SE on 4 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that rockfalls and pyroclastic flows from the Soufrière Hills lava dome occurred during 4-11 June. The largest pyroclastic flow originated in the collapse scar and traveled 1 km N. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
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Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
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Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)