Chachadake [Tiatia]

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  • Japan - administered by Russia
  • Kuril Islands
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1981 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 44.353°N
  • 146.252°E

  • 1822 m
    5976 ft

  • 290030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 29 August-4 September 2012


SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Tiatia was detected in satellite images on 1 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: July 2010 (BGVN 35:07)


Thermal anomalies detected during February-June 2010

No eruptive or thermal activity is known on Tiatia between 1988 and the beginning of 2010, but thermal anomalies began in February 2010. During its last activity, in 1988, Tiatia displayed steaming in many parts of the crater (SEAN 13:11). The volcano, whose alternate names include Tyatya and Chacha-dake, sits near the NE margin of Kunashir Island (figures 1-3).

Figure 1. A map showing the location of Tiatia volcano very near the southern end of the Kurile island chain. For scale, NE-trending Kunashir Island is 123 km long. Tiatia and the city of Sapporo (on the NW side of Hokkaido Island, Japan) are ~ 600 km apart.
Figure 2. Two aerial views of Tiatia disclose its striking morphology. (left) View in 1973 showing the symmetrical caldera rim, which encircles an axially symmetrical inner cone with a broken top; scoria cones lie on the SE slope (mid- to foreground). (right) Viewed from the S in 2008 on a clear day. Courtesy of volcanologist Anatoly Khrenov (1973 photo) and blogger Udachnik (2008 photo).
Figure 3. An ASTER image of Tiatia taken on 29 June 2006 shows considerable snow surrounding the crater and down the caldera's flanks. Where visible, the slopes generally appear densely vegetated, except for the crater, some upslope areas, and around minor cones on the lower right and upper center. N is towards the top; the summit caldera is ~ 2 km in diameter. Courtesy of Aster Volcano Archive.

According to the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), thermal anomalies were detected during 2010 by satellite on 9 February, 31 May, 10 June, 19 June, and 25 June. Tiatia lacks a local seismic instrument and satellites are the primary tool used for monitoring. The satellites used in detecting these anomalies was not identified. MODVOLC thermal alerts were absent, a circumstance that could be explained by their reasonably high threshold in order to minimize the mis-identification of thermal activity.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Alexander Rybin, IMGG FEB RAS, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/rus/labs_vulcan_hazard.php); The ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), NASA Jet Propulsion Lab, California Institute of Technology (URL: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov/volcano.asp); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); Udachnik (URL: http://dirty.ru/comments/245960).

Index of Weekly Reports


2012: August
2010: February | June

Weekly Reports


29 August-4 September 2012

SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Tiatia was detected in satellite images on 1 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


30 June-6 July 2010

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly from Tiatia volcano was detected by satellite on 25 June.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


16 June-22 June 2010

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly from Tiatia, a volcano on NE Kunashir Island, was detected by satellite on 19 June. Tiatia does not have a seismic network; satellite image observations are the primary tool for monitoring many of the Kuril Islands volcanoes.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


9 June-15 June 2010

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly from Tiatia was detected by satellite on 10 June. Tiatia does not have a seismic network; satellite image observations are the primary tool for monitoring many of the Kurile Islands volcanoes.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


2 June-8 June 2010

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly from Tiatia was detected by satellite on 31 May. Tiatia does not have a seismic network; satellite image observations are the primary tool for monitoring many of the Kurile Islands volcanoes.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


10 February-16 February 2010

SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly from Tiatia was detected by satellite on 9 February.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/1973 (CSLP 92-73) Frequent explosions generate 5-km-high plume and cause ashfall

07/1978 (SEAN 03:07) 600-m vapor column

08/1978 (SEAN 03:08) Explosion sound and vapor cloud

07/1981 (SEAN 06:07) Vapor emission and glow

12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Moderate fumarolic activity from the summit crater

11/1988 (SEAN 13:11) Fumarolic activity

07/2010 (BGVN 35:07) Thermal anomalies detected during February-June 2010




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


07/1973 (CSLP 92-73) Frequent explosions generate 5-km-high plume and cause ashfall

Card 1677 (16 July 1973) Loud explosions and heavy local ashfall

The Tiatia volcano began erupting several months ago . . . . During the current activity a crater has formed at the foothills of the eastern slope and is ejecting ash at 1-second intervals. The eruption cloud reaches a height of 5 km above the summit, and flames can be observed at night. The explosions are audible up to a distance of 50 km from the volcano, and the depth of ash near the volcano measures up to 60 cm thick.

Card 1684 (27 July 1973) Eruption cloud rises to 5-6 km; explosions every 40-60 seconds

After lying dormant since 1812, [Tiatia] erupted on 14 July. The volcano has been continually throwing out fire and ash every 1.5-2 minutes, and the color of the island changed from green to a dirty gray in the space of two days.

This eruption . . . was preceded by a series of earthquakes of considerable magnitude. A very strong shock occurred on 17 June, and a second, stronger earthquake followed a week later.

On the second day of the eruption it was observed that the eruption cloud reached a height of 5,000-6,000 m, and that the explosions were occurring every 40-60 seconds.

Information Contacts: Card 1677 (16 July 1973) Y.M. Doubik, IV.
Card 1684 (27 July 1973) Y.M. Doubik, IV.

07/1978 (SEAN 03:07) 600-m vapor column

The crew of a JMSA patrol boat observed a white vapor column rising about 600 m above the summit of Tiatia on the morning of [21] July. Tiatia last erupted in 1973, after 161 years of quiet. [Increased thermal activity between 1974 and 1977 melted snow and emitted vapor plumes but produced no tephra (Markhinin, 1984).]

Further Reference. Markhinin, E.K., 1984, On the state of Kunashir Island volcanoes (March, 1974-May, 1982): Volcanology and Seismology, v. 5, no. 1, p. 45-52 (English translation); 1983, no. 1, p. 43-51 (in Russian).

Information Contacts: Reuters.

08/1978 (SEAN 03:08) Explosion sound and vapor cloud

Residents of the E end of Hokkaido heard an explosion on 20 July at 1325. The explosion was not recorded by seismographs or microbarographs in E Hokkaido. Tiatia, approximately 50 km to the E, was obscured by fog. The next morning, the crew of the JMSA ship Kunasiri observed a white cloud rising 600 m from Tiatia, but heard no explosions. No ashfall was found (in Japan) on 20 or 21 July.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.

07/1981 (SEAN 06:07) Vapor emission and glow

The crew of a Japanese fishing boat cruising near Kunashir Island observed "smoke" rising from Tiatia on 10 June. During the night of 24 June, an orange glare was observed in the direction of the volcano from [JMA's Nemuro Weather Station], 120 km away. No additional activity has been reported.

Information Contacts: Kyodo Radio, Tokyo.

12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Moderate fumarolic activity from the summit crater

"Aerial inspection on 20 September of the volcanoes in the S and central Kuril Islands revealed that Tiatia's summit crater was in a state of moderate fumarolic activity. No individual distinct fumaroles were observed; vapor was being released from the whole crater surface. Numerous vapor sites were also noticed on the outer slopes near the summit crater. There were no remarkable changes near the volcano summit as compared to 1977-78. A certain increase in heat activity was observed near the subordinate vent (formed in 1973) on the S slope. Heat flow measurements made in the vent in 1981 by A. Zemtsov and A. Tron yielded values of q = 7.4 and W/m2 = 1.77 cal/cm2s, 1.2 times as large as in 1978. Orange glare was observed by people in Yuzhno-Kurilsk, 50 km SW of the volcano, but we are not sure that it was related to volcanic activity."

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg, Sakhalin Complex Institute.

11/1988 (SEAN 13:11) Fumarolic activity

Fumarolic activity in the summit crater remained at the same level. Steaming ground was observed in many parts of the crater, but well-formed fumaroles were not evident. The intensity of steam release increases when atmospheric pressure drops and after precipitation. Tiatia's last reported activity ejected a 1-1.5-km-high white steam column in February 1982.

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.

07/2010 (BGVN 35:07) Thermal anomalies detected during February-June 2010

No eruptive or thermal activity is known on Tiatia between 1988 and the beginning of 2010, but thermal anomalies began in February 2010. During its last activity, in 1988, Tiatia displayed steaming in many parts of the crater (SEAN 13:11). The volcano, whose alternate names include Tyatya and Chacha-dake, sits near the NE margin of Kunashir Island (figures 1-3).

Figure 1. A map showing the location of Tiatia volcano very near the southern end of the Kurile island chain. For scale, NE-trending Kunashir Island is 123 km long. Tiatia and the city of Sapporo (on the NW side of Hokkaido Island, Japan) are ~ 600 km apart.
Figure 2. Two aerial views of Tiatia disclose its striking morphology. (left) View in 1973 showing the symmetrical caldera rim, which encircles an axially symmetrical inner cone with a broken top; scoria cones lie on the SE slope (mid- to foreground). (right) Viewed from the S in 2008 on a clear day. Courtesy of volcanologist Anatoly Khrenov (1973 photo) and blogger Udachnik (2008 photo).
Figure 3. An ASTER image of Tiatia taken on 29 June 2006 shows considerable snow surrounding the crater and down the caldera's flanks. Where visible, the slopes generally appear densely vegetated, except for the crater, some upslope areas, and around minor cones on the lower right and upper center. N is towards the top; the summit caldera is ~ 2 km in diameter. Courtesy of Aster Volcano Archive.

According to the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), thermal anomalies were detected during 2010 by satellite on 9 February, 31 May, 10 June, 19 June, and 25 June. Tiatia lacks a local seismic instrument and satellites are the primary tool used for monitoring. The satellites used in detecting these anomalies was not identified. MODVOLC thermal alerts were absent, a circumstance that could be explained by their reasonably high threshold in order to minimize the mis-identification of thermal activity.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Alexander Rybin, IMGG FEB RAS, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/rus/labs_vulcan_hazard.php); The ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), NASA Jet Propulsion Lab, California Institute of Technology (URL: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov/volcano.asp); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); Udachnik (URL: http://dirty.ru/comments/245960).

Chachadake, also known as Tiatia, consists of a beautifully symmetrical cone that rises above the broad rim of an erosionally furrowed, 2.1 x 2.4 km wide caldera. The edifice occupies the NE tip of Kunashir Island and morphologically resembles Mount Vesuvius. The pristine-looking conical central cone, mostly formed by basaltic to basaltic-andesite strombolian eruptions, rises 400 m above the floor of the caldera and contains a 400 x 250 m wide crater with two explosion vents separated by a linear septum. Fresh lava flows cover much of the SW caldera floor and have overflowed the rim, extending to the foot of the older somma, which formed during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. A lava flow from a flank cone on the northern caldera rim reached the Sea of Okhotsk. A major explosive eruption in 1973 followed an initial historical eruption in 1812.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1982 Feb 10 ] [ 1982 Feb 14 ] Uncertain 1  
1981 Jun 10 1981 Jun 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1978 Jul 20 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1974 ] [ 1975 ] Discredited    
1973 Jul 14 1973 Jul 28 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations NNW and SSE flanks
1812 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Antonia Peak | Tsiatsia | Chachanobori | Tyatya | St. Antony Peak | Chacha | Sofunobori | Chachanupuri | Saint Antony Peak

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chachadake Somma volcano

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Otvazhny Crater
Radkevich Crater
Volodavets Crater
Tiatia volcano rises above a campsite on northern Kunashir Island. A beautifully symmetrical cone (center) was constructed within a 2.1 x 2.4 km caldera. The 1819-m-high Tiatia, also known as Chacha, produced fresh lava flows that cover much of the SW caldera floor and have overflowed the rim, extending to the foot of the older caldera. A major explosive eruption in 1973 was the first since Tiatia's initial historical eruption in 1812.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
A false-color satellite image in July 1973 shows a dark-gray eruption plume blown by high-altitude winds to the SE from Tiatia volcano on the NE tip of Kunashir Island. The eruption, the first of the 20th century from Tiatia, began on July 14, with a plume that reached 5 km above the summit. The eruption originated from new vents on the NNW and SSE flanks of the central cone and was one of the largest historical eruptions in the Kuril Islands. Explosive activity lasted for 12 days and was followed by two days of lava effusion.

Photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1973.
A 400-m-wide crater truncates the summit of the central cone of Tiatia volcano, on the NE tip of Kunashir Island. The SE part of the crater rim (upper right), seen here in October 1990, is considerably higher than the rest of the rim and forms the 1822-m-high summit of the volcano. The symmetrical summit cone rises 400-m above the floor of a caldera that truncates an earlier Pleistocene volcano.

Photo by A. Samoluk, 1990 (courtesy of Genrich Steinberg, Institute for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).
The SE flanks of 1819-m-high Tiatia volcano, one of the most impressive of the Kuril Islands, rise above the Pacific Ocean at the NE tip of Kunashir Island. A beautifully symmetrical cone (center) rises above the low snow-covered rim of an erosionally furrowed, 2.1 x 2.4 km caldera. A major explosive eruption in 1973 was the first since Tiatia's initial historical eruption in 1812.

Copyrighted photo by Yoshihiro Ishizuka, 1992 (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/strata/VOL_JP/EN/index.htm and Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.gsj.jp/).
The gently sloping volcanic massif on the left-center horizon, left of sharp-peaked Rurui volcano, is Smirnov volcano. These two volcanoes are located at the NW tip of Kunashir Island. Smirnov volcano has been extensively eroded by glaciers, but contains young pyroclastic flows and lava domes. The late-Pleistocene Rurui volcano has an active fumarole field on its western flank. The fresh crater in the foreground is the northern crater of the 1973 eruption of Tiatia volcano, SE of Smirnov and Rurui.

Copyrighted photo by Yoshihiro Ishizuka, 1999 (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/strata/VOL_JP/EN/index.htm and Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.gsj.jp/).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gorshkov G S, 1958. Kurile Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 7: 1-99.

Gorshkov G S, 1970. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle; Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp, 385 p.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Murayama I, 1987. Volcanoes of Japan (I). Tokyo: Daimedo, 315 p (2nd edition, in Japanese).

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Ono K, Soya T, Mimura K, 1981. Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan Map Ser, no 11, 2nd edition, 1:2,000,000.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Intermediate crust (15-25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
3
223
896
16,275

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Chachadake [Tiatia] Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.