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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 16 February-22 February 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 16 February-22 February 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Fuego Guatemala New
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) New
Santa Maria Guatemala New
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Planchon-Peteroa Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV-CT reported that on 16 February an explosive sequence, presumably from Etna's NE Crater, was detected on 16 February during the late evening. Cloud cover made direct observations difficult. On 18 February the thermal monitoring camera at Montagnola (EMOT) recorded anomalies from the pit crater located on the lower E flank of SE Crater cone. At the same time, the visible-light camera at Montagnola (EMOV) showed intermittent incandescence indicating Strombolian activity, and the seismic network recorded a rapid increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude. This eruptive episode lasted about 11 hours and produced pulsating lava fountains. Lava flows traveled E, following the same path as that of the 12-13 January event, in the direction of the Valle del Bove. Light ashfall occurred on the SW flank of the volcano.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-17 and 20-22 February explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 300-800 m above the crater. Some plumes drifted E. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 100 m above the crater. Avalanches traveled E as well as SW, descending the Taniluyá, Santa Teresa, Ceniza, and Trinidad drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kirishimayama  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.934°N, 130.862°E  | Elevation 1700 m

Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 February an explosion from Shinmoe-dake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishima volcano group, produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. A pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The next day, satellite imagery showed that the ash had dissipated.

According to a news article on 17 February, officials recommended that more than 2,500 residents should evacuate their homes due to potential lahar activity from heavy rain. An official noted that 63 people in Miyakonojo (30 km SE) had already moved to evacuation shelters.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Stuff



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-17 February explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 800 m above Caliente dome and drifted S and SW. Avalanches traveled S, and ashfall was reported in Palajunoj, on the SW flank. According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes were observed in satellite imagery drifting more than 10 km SSW. During 18-19 February, thermal anomalies were detected in satellite imagery. An ash plume drifted 25 km W on 18 February and again W at an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 19 February.

INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 February activity was low. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose up to 500-900 m above Caliente dome. On 21 February a few avalanches and pyroclastic flows accompanied the explosions. Incandescent avalanches originated from the top of Caliente dome on 22 February.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

INGV-CT reported that on 17 February a series of strong explosions from the northernmost vent of Stromboli's summit area led to the accumulation of hot scoriaceous material on the external N flank of the crater. Activity continued at elevated levels from two vents in the northern portion of the crater terrace through 23 February.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-17 and 19-22 February explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Some plumes drifted W, SW, and ESE. During 21-22 February, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.769°N, 124.056°E  | Elevation 1535 m

During 17-20 February, PHIVOLCS reported that up to three daily volcanic earthquakes at Bulusan were detected by the seismic network. Cloud cover mostly prevented observations of the summit area, although steam rose from NW thermal vents on 19 February. An explosion on 21 February produced a gray ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater and drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were heard up to 10 km away in the town of Juban (NW). The event was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion-type earthquake lasting for about 19 minutes. Field investigations confirmed ash deposits in the towns of Irosin (up to 5 mm), 8 km SSW, and Bulan (up to 3 mm), 22 km SW. Traces of ashfall were also reported in the municipalities of Juban and Magallanes (24 km WNW), and in Masbate City (70 km SW), Masbate. According to news articles, about 2,000 people evacuated. During 21-22 February 16 volcanic earthquakes were detected by the seismic network. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), People's Daily Online (China)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-17 February an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150-185 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity was detected at Karymsky during 11-18 February. Seismic data indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly and ash plumes that drifted 30 km NE on 16 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 16-22 February, activity continued from the summit caldera and east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the circulating lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater fluctuated between 70 and 125 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted in multiple directions and deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby.

At the east rift zone, two branches of the 29 November lava flow (a lava tube breach at 366 m elevation) produced scattered surface flows on the pali and coastal plain. In Pu'u 'O'o crater, lava effused from a cone on the NE portion of the crater floor and from a vent in the E crater wall during most of 16-18 February, covering a large portion of the crater floor. After the lava effusion ceased, incandescence emanated from the cone and vent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 11-18 February seismicity from Kizimen was high but variable, and many shallow volcanic earthquakes as well as volcanic tremor continued to be detected. Satellite images showed a bright thermal anomaly over the volcano daily. During 12-17 February ash plumes drifted more than 170 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 February a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent notices stated that ash emissions had continued then dissipated later that day.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Planchon-Peteroa  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 35.223°S, 70.568°W  | Elevation 3977 m

Based on SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 17 February an ash plume from Planchón-Peteroa rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity was detected at Shiveluch during 11-18 February. A thermal anomaly over the lava dome was observed daily in satellite imagery. Gas and steam activity was observed on 13 and 16 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 February a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Subsequent notices that day stated that ash had dissipated.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that on 15 February clear views of the Soufrière Hills lava dome allowed scientists to conduct a thermal survey, the first since 2 December 2010, and compare the results to identify changes. A warmer area on the W side of the lava dome (Gages) had moved upslope. This area had been the source of a number of pyroclastic flows and rockfalls since February 2010. The second difference was the apparent increase in the number of fumaroles inside the collapse scar and around the 2006-2007 dome. One of the most obvious areas of increase was on the NE side of the lava dome.

MVO also reported that in total 18 volcano-tectonic earthquakes from Soufrière Hills were detected in two swarms that occurred on 12 and 16 February. Brief clear views of the lava dome revealed no significant morphological changes. Fresh pyroclastic-flow deposits on the E side of the dome at the head of the Tar River valley were noted. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

CVGHM reported that during 17-18 February brownish gray ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted ENE. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m above the crater and landed as far as 500 m away, and roaring and booming was heard. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)