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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 5 September-11 September 2012.


















 Activity for the week of 5 September-11 September 2012

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Apoyeque Nicaragua New
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia) New
Krakatau Indonesia New
Little Sitkin United States New
San Cristobal Nicaragua New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New
Tangkubanparahu Western Java (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Gamkonora Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Machin Colombia Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Paluweh Indonesia Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sirung Pantar Island (Indonesia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Apoyeque  | Nicaragua  | 12.242°N, 86.342°W  | Elevation 518 m

INETER reported that a seismic swarm near Apoyeque started at 1627 on 6 September in an area between the volcano and Managua (less than 10 km SW). At the time of the report, almost four hours after the start of the event, 17 earthquakes had been detected; three events were M 2.3-3.7, at depths ranging from 2.8 to 6 km. No earthquakes were recorded on 9 September.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]  | Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia)  | 45.012°N, 147.871°E  | Elevation 1158 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that during 4-10 September fumarolic activity at Grozny Group increased. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Krakatau acquired on 4 September showed fresh lava flows descending the SE flank of Anak Krakatau, extending the shoreline by about 100 m.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory



Volcano index photo  Little Sitkin  | United States  | 51.95°N, 178.543°E  | Elevation 1174 m

AVO reported that during 5-11 September seismic activity at Little Sitkin was much lower than the peak of activity during 29-30 August, but continued to remain elevated. Satellite views were obscured by clouds during 5 and 8-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  San Cristobal  | Nicaragua  | 12.702°N, 87.004°W  | Elevation 1745 m

INETER reported that on 8 September three explosions from San Cristóbal produced ash-and-gas plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted 9 km/hr NW. Ashfall was reported in El Viejo (18 km WSW), El Chonco, and Ranchería. Sporadic explosions later that day generated ash plumes that rose 1.5-5 km and drifted 50 km WNW. Ash fell in an area covering 2,438 square kilometers, including the communities of El Viejo, La Grecia, La Joya, Santa Catalina, El Piloto, Las Banderas, Las Rojas, Carlos Fonseca, Jiquilillo, Mechapa, and Cosiguina. Ashfall was 5 cm thick in areas near the crater and up to 3 mm thick in more distant places. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 3,221 tons per day, well above the normal range of 550 to 700 tons per day. A resident near the volcano reported landslides and falling rocks in the N part of the crater. Incandescent rocks fell in areas NW, causing burns on livestock. Residents in Versalles Arriba, near the crater, reported seeing a fissure. According to a news article, officials evacuated about 3,000 people. SINAPRED reported that airplanes were diverted around San Cristóbal to other airways.

Sources: Associated Press, Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 31 August-7 September activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level, although seismicity remained slightly elevated. Clear views of parts of the dome showed very little change, apart from some modification to the steep eastern face from the formation of the pyroclastic flow on 29 August. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tangkubanparahu  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 6.77°S, 107.6°E  | Elevation 2084 m

CVGHM reported that seismicity at Tangkubanparahu had increased significantly on 13 August, then again on 23 August; seismicity fluctuated and remained elevated through 6 September. Earthquakes were located 0.5-4 km beneath Ratu Crater and in an area W at depths of 4-12 km. Soil temperatures at Ratu Crater showed an increasing trend on 31 August, but had gradually declined by 5 September. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were high in an area NW of the crater, causing CVGHM to remind visitors not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Based on seismicity, visual observations, gas measurements, and crater lake water temperatures through 7 September, the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 3-7 September six explosive eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 6-11 September often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.6 km (6,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes sometimes drifted N, NE, and SE. On 10 September a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 5-11 August ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-75 km W, WNW, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

On 5 September, AVO reported that satellite views of Cleveland showed no evidence of further eruptive activity since the last explosion on 20 August. Fresh lava within the summit crater was last detected in images in early May. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

In a special bulletin on 4 September at 1700, INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption from Fuego that began 32 hours earlier had ended. During 6-11 September fumarolic plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater and drifted W and NW. Weak explosions generated ash plumes that rose 300-400 m above the crater and drifted W and NW. During 8-9 September incandescent tephra was ejected to a height of 100 m and caused avalanches in the Taniluyá and the Ceniza (SSW) drainages. A 10-20-m-wide lahar traveled SE down the Las Lajas drainage on 9 September, carrying tree trunks and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 10-11 September a lava flow traveled 100 m down the Taniluyá drainage.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Gamkonora  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.38°N, 127.53°E  | Elevation 1635 m

CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Gamkonora was lowered from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported weak-to-moderate seismic activity from Karymsky during 31 August-7 September. Seismic data indicated that ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the volcano on 31 August and 1 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 5-11 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

On 4 September HVO geologists observed the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and noted lava ponds in the E and S pits, with the N pit being fully crusted over. During 5-11 September glow emanated from the E and S pit craters; lava in the N pit was crusted, but was periodically incandescent on the W edge. A collapse in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow. Lava flows were active above and at the top of the pali. On 11 September a geologist confirmed that lava flows above the pali had advanced to the top of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Machin  | Colombia  | 4.487°N, 75.389°W  | Elevation 2749 m

According to INGEOMINAS, Observatory Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that at 0732 on 9 September a M 3.6 volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred below the main lava dome at Cerro Machín at a depth of 3.2 km, and was felt by nearby residents. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

According to INGEOMINAS, on 5 September the Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz significantly decreased, both in the number and magnitude of the earthquakes. Field measurements and analysis of satellite imagery continued to show a significant amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. A steam-and-gas plume rose 400 m and drifted W. Later that day, INGEOMINAS decreased the Alert Level to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Paluweh was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 31 August-7 September a viscous lava flow continued to effuse on the NE flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, and was accompanied by hot avalanches and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome during 31 August and 4-5 September; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sirung  | Pantar Island (Indonesia)  | 8.508°S, 124.13°E  | Elevation 862 m

CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Sirung was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fuego Llaima San Cristobal
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Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
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Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)